Adaptive Network Coding Scheme for TCP over Wireless Sensor Networks

  • Yi-Cheng Chan National Changhua University of Education
  • Ya-Yi Hu National Changhua University of Education

Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to develop a network coding scheme to enhance TCP performance in wireless sensor networks. It is well known that TCP performs poorly over wireless links which suffer from packet losses mainly due to the bad channel. To address this problem, it is useful to incorporate network coding into TCP, as network coding can offer significant benefits in terms of throughput, reliability, and robustness. However, the encoding and decoding operations of network coding techniques will bring an additional delay that has a negative effect on applications of wireless sensor networks. In this paper, we propose an adaptive network coding (ANC) scheme which contains two major aspects: the adjustment of the redundancy factor R and the adjustment of the coding window size CW. We dynamically adjust these two parameters depending on the measured packet loss rate, so that the proposed ANC can effectively mask packet losses and reduce the decoding delay of network coding. The performance of our scheme is evaluated by simulations using NS-2 simulator. Compared to other schemes, the ANC not only achieves a good throughput but also has the lowest average delay and the lowest maximum delay in all experimental environments.

References

[1] H. Balakrishnan, V. N. Padmanabhan, S. Seshan, and R. H. Katz, A comparison of mechanisms for improving tcp performance over wireless links, IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, 5(6): 756-769, Dec. 1997.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/90.650137
[2] J. K. Sundararajan, D. Shah, M. Medard, M. Mitzenmacher, and J. Barros, Network Coding Meets TCP, 2009 Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM, pp. 280-288, Apr. 2009.

[3] R. Ahlswede, N. Cai, S.-Y. R. Li, and R. W. Yeung, Network information flow. IEEE Trans. on Information Theory, vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 1204-1216, Jul. 2000.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/18.850663
[4] C. Fragouli, J.-Y. Le Boudec, and J. Widmer, Network coding: An instant primer, ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communication Review, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 63-68, Jan. 2006.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1111322.1111337
[5] Yao-Nan Lien, Hop-by-Hop TCP for Sensor Networks, International Journal of Computer Networks & Communications, Vol. 1, No. 1, Apr. 2009.

[6] C. Wang, K. Sohraby, B. Li, M. Daneshmand, and Y. Hu, A survey of transport protocols for wireless sensor networks. IEEE Network Magazine, 20(3): 34-40, Jun. 2006.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/MNET.2006.1637930
[7] Z. Liu, C. Wu, B. Li, and S. Zhao, UUSee: Large-Scale Operational On-Demand Streaming with Random Network Coding, 2010 Proceedings IEEE INFOCOM, pp. 1-9, Mar. 2010.

[8] D. Koutsonikolas, C.-C. Wang, and Y. Hu, CCACK: Efficient Network Coding Based Opportunistic Routing Through Cumulative Coded Acknowledgments, 2010 Proceedings IEEE INFOCOM, pp. 1-9, Mar. 2010.

[9] D. Silva and F. R. Kschischan, Universal Secure Network Coding via Rank-Metric Codes, IEEE Trans. on Information Theory, vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 1124-1135, Feb. 2011.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TIT.2010.2090212
[10] B. Nazer and M. Gastpar, Reliable Physical Layer Network Coding, Proceedings of the IEEE, 99(3): 438-460, Mar. 2011.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JPROC.2010.2094170
[11] A. G. Dimakis, P. G. Godfrey, Y. Wu, M. J. Wainwright and K. Ramchandran, Network Coding for Distributed Storage Systems, IEEE Trans. on Information Theory, vol. 56, no. 9, pp. 4539-4551, Sep. 2010.

[12] J. K. Sundararajan, D. Shah, and M. Medard, ARQ for network coding, in Proc. of IEEE International Symposium on Info. Theory (ISIT), pp. 1651-1655, Jul. 2008.

[13] J. Chan, L. Liu, X.Hu, and W. Tan. Effective retransmission in network coding for TCP. International Journal of Computers Communications & Control, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 53-62, Mar. 2011.

[14] S. Gheorghiu, A. L. Toledo, and P. Rodriguez, Multipath TCP with network coding for wireless mesh networks, IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), pp. 1-5, May 2010.

[15] S. Gheorghiu, A. L. Toledo, and P. Rodriguez, A network coding scheme for seamless interaction with TCP, International Symposium on Network Coding (NetCod), pp. 1-6, Jul. 2011.

[16] S. Song, H. Li, K. Pan, J. Liu, and Shuo-Yen Robert Li, Self-adaptive TCP protocol combined with network coding scheme, In International Conference on Systems and Networks Communications (ICSNC), pp. 20-25, Oct. 2011.

[17] F. Xia, A. Vinel, R. Gao, L. Wang, and T. Qiu, Evaluating ieee 802.15.4 for cyber-physical systems, EURASIP J. Wireless Commun. and Networking, vol. 2011, pp. 1-15, Feb. 2011.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/596397
[18] The Network Simulator - ns-2, http://www.isi.edu/nsnam/ns/.
Published
2013-11-11
How to Cite
CHAN, Yi-Cheng; HU, Ya-Yi. Adaptive Network Coding Scheme for TCP over Wireless Sensor Networks. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMPUTERS COMMUNICATIONS & CONTROL, [S.l.], v. 8, n. 6, p. 800-811, nov. 2013. ISSN 1841-9844. Available at: <http://univagora.ro/jour/index.php/ijccc/article/view/26>. Date accessed: 11 july 2020. doi: https://doi.org/10.15837/ijccc.2013.6.26.