An Efficient Anchor-Free Localization Algorithm for all Cluster Topologies in a Wireless Sensor Network


  • Ahoua Cyrille Aka Institut National Polytechnique Félix Houphouët-Boigny, Yamoussoukro, Côte d’Ivoire
  • Amanvon Ferdinand Atta Université Virtuelle de Côte d’Ivoire, Côte d’Ivoire
  • Satchou Gilles Armel Keupondjo Institut National Polytechnique Félix Houphouët-Boigny, Yamoussoukro, Côte d’Ivoire
  • Souleymane Oumtanaga Institut National Polytechnique Félix Houphouët-Boigny, Yamoussoukro, Côte d’Ivoire



Anchor-free localization, Wireless sensor networks, Localization algorithm, Cluster topology


A wireless sensor network is a type of network, which has many application domains such as military, civil security, industrial and environmental. Localization of fixed or mobile wireless sensors in wireless sensor networks is a delicate issue that has attracted the attention of many researchers. Indeed, a good estimation of the distances between different wireless sensors allows to derive their precise locations in the network. An ideal solution for locating these wireless sensors is to equip them with localization devices such as GPS. However, this solution is not an energy-efficient. Indeed, GPS is very energy-consuming, and the deployment environment is not easily accessible to humans. So, it is not possible to replace the batteries of these wireless sensors when they are discharged. Therefore, it is necessary to propose an energy-saving anchor-free localization algorithm. Despite the grouping of nodes into clusters (or sub-networks), existing anchor-free localization algorithms suffer from a low rate of node localization, low localization accuracy, and high energy consumption. To improve the proposed solutions in the literature, an Efficient Anchor Free Localization Algorithm (EAFLA) was proposed. Regardless the topology of each cluster, our algorithm allows localization of all wireless sensors with a very low localization error rate and consumes less energy.


Benmahdi, M.B; Lehsaini, M. (2021). Greedy forwarding routing schemes using an improved kmeans approach for wireless sensor networks, Wireless Personal Communications, 2021.

Chafik, A. (2014). Architecture de réseau de capteurs pour la surveillance de grands systèmes physiques à mobilité cyclique, PhD thesis, Université de Lorraine, 2014.

Chai, S.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, B.; Cui, L.; Chai, R. (2020) Wireless Sensor Networks, Springer Singapore, 2020.

Ding, X.; Dong, S. (2019). Improving positioning algorithm based on RSSI, Wireless Personal Communications, 110 (4): 1947- 1961, 2020.

Du, T.; Qu, S.; Guo, Q.; Zhu, L. (2017). A simple efficient anchor-free node localization algorithm for wireless sensor networks, International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks, 2017.

Elshrkawey, M.; Al-Mahdi, H. (2021). Sda-sm: An efficient secure data aggregation scheme using separate mac across wireless sensor networks, Int. J. Comput. Commun. Control, 16(2), 2021.

Kaur, B.; Prashar, D. (2018). Analysis and comparison of localization approaches in wsn: A review, International Conference on Advanced Informatics for Computing Research, 294-309, 2018.

Khomsin; Ira, M.A.; Danar, G.P.; Wahyu, R. (2019). Accuracy analysis of GNSS (GPS, GLONASS and BEIDOU) obsevation for positioning, E3S Web of Conferences, 94,1-7, 2019.

Shakshuki, E.; Elkhail, A.A.; Nemer, I.; Adam, M.; Sheltami, T. (2019). Comparative Study on Range Free Localization Algorithms, Procedia Computer Science, 151, 501-510, 2019.

Liu, C.; Mao, J.L.; Chi, Z.C.; Fu, L.X.; Xiang, F.H. (2014). A localization algorithm based on anchor-free wireless sensor network, Advanced Materials Research, 1056, 221-226, 2014.

Liu, Z.; Zhao, Y.; Hu, D.; Liu, C. (2016) A moving source localization method for distributed passive sensor using tdoa and fdoa measurements, International journal of antennas and propagation, 2016.

Wang M. (2016). Distributed node location algorithm using non-anchor node clustering, 2016 11th International Conference on Computer Science & Education (ICCSE), 505-511, 2016.

Chen, Y.; Li, X.; Ding, Y.; Xu, J.; Liu, Z. (2018). An improved DV-hop localization algorithm for wireless sensor networks, 2018 13th IEEE Conference on Industrial Electronics and Applications (ICIEA),1831-1836, 2018.

Qian, M.; Zhao, K.; Li, B.; Seneviratne, A. (2022). An Overview of Ultra-Wideband Technology and Performance Analysis of UWB-TWR in Simulation and Real Environment, CEUR Workshop Proceedings, 3248, 2022.

Qu, Z.; Shu, M.; Yang, M.; Zhang, C.; Wei, N.; Guo, Q.; Du, T. (2015). An energy efficient anchor-free localization algorithm for no-identity wireless sensor networks, International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks, 11(12), 2015.

Shah, I.; Dohare, Y.; Yadav, D. (2020). A modified anchor free localization technique for wireless sensor network, EAI Endorsed Transactions on Cloud Systems, 6(19), 2020.

Sharma, N.; Gupta, V. (2020). Meta-heuristic based optimization of WSNs localisation problema survey, Procedia Computer Science, 173, 36- 45, 2020.

Sivasakthiselvan, S.; Nagarajan, V. (2020). Localization techniques of wireless sensor networks: A review, 2020 International Conference on Communication and Signal Processing (ICCSP), 1643-1648, 2020.

Suroso, D.J.; Adiyatma,F.Y.M.; Kurniawan, A.E.; Panarat, C. (2021). Performance comparison of several range-based techniques for indoor localization based on rssi, International Journal on Information and Communication Technology (IJoICT), 7(1), 40-53, 2021.

Vyas, A.; Puntambekar, S. (2022). Cluster based leach routing protocol and its successor: A review, JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH, 66(1), 326-341, 2022.

Li, Q.; Chu, B.; Wu, Z.; Sun, W.; Chen, L.; Li, J.; Liu, Z. (2017). RMDS: Ranging and multidimensional scaling-based anchor-free localization in large-scale wireless sensor networks with coverage holes, International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks,13(8), 2017.

Zhang, L.; Yang, Z.; Zhang, S.; Yang, H. (2019) Three-dimensional localization algorithm of wsn nodes based on rssi-toa and single mobile anchor node, Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering, 2019, 2019.

Zhang, X.; Fang, J.; Meng, F. (2016). An efficient node localization approach with rssi for randomly deployed wireless sensor networks, Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering, 2016, 2016.

Additional Files



Most read articles by the same author(s)

Obs.: This plugin requires at least one statistics/report plugin to be enabled. If your statistics plugins provide more than one metric then please also select a main metric on the admin's site settings page and/or on the journal manager's settings pages.