A Multi-objective Location Decision Making Model for Emergency Shelters Giving Priority to Subjective Evaluation of Residents


  • Yiying Wang Business School, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China
  • Zeshui Xu Business School, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China




Emergency shelter location, Multi-objective optimization, Multi-attribute, Subjective preference, Total refuge time


Earthquake is regarded as the most destructive and terrible disaster among all-natural disasters [1]. Experts agree that immediate emergency evacuation is the safest and most effective response to the earthquake disaster [2]. In the research of emergency evacuation planning, the influence of human subjectivity has gradually attracted researchers’ attention. In this paper, we take the human subjectivity as one of the most important factors for emergency evacuation planning. Based on the preferences of the residents at each demand point for the attributes of every candidate emergency shelter, the subjective score of each candidate emergency shelter is obtained. The preferences of residents will change with the refuge time, so do the weights of residents’ subjective scores of all attributes of candidate emergency shelters. Therefore, we use the subjective score function to describe the change of residents’ evaluations for the emergency shelter over time, and take the average value of subjective scores at all refuge times as the primary basis for location decision making. On these bases, we build a multi-objective location decision making model for emergency shelters giving priority to subjective evaluation of residents. In the model, we consider transfer distance, the efficiency of construction funds and the distribution of people among emergency shelters. Considering fairness, we minimize the standard deviation of the scores and the standard deviation of the transfer distances in the model. This model is applied to a case, which verifies its feasibility and shows that human subjectivity plays an important role in emergency evacuation planning.


Ipong, L. G., Ongy, E. E., Bales, M. C. Impact of Magnitude 6.5 Earthquake on the Lives and Livelihoods of Affected Communities: The Case of Barangay Lake Danao, Ormoc city, Leyte, Philippines. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 2020, 46: 101520.


Ao, Y. B., Huang, K., Wang, Y., Wang, Q. M., Martek, L. Influence of Built Environment and Risk Perception on Seismic Evacuation Behavior: Evidence from Rural Areas Affected by Wenchuan Earthquake. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 2020, 46: 101504.


Zhang, H. J., Wang, F., Tang, H. L., Dong, Y. C. An Optimization-Based Approach to Social Network Group Decision Making with an Application to Earthquake Shelter-Site Selection. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2019, 16(15): 2740.


Li, J., Liu, W. Lifeline Engineering Systems-Network Reliability Analysis and Aseismic Design. Shanghai scientific and technical publisher: Shanghai, China, 2021.


Weber, A. Theory of the Location of Industries. The University of Chicago Press: Chicago, USA, 1929.

Hakimi, S. L. Optimum Locations of Switching Centers and the Absolute Centers and Medians of a Graph. Operations Research, 1964, 12(3): 450-459.


Hakimi, S. L. Optimum Distribution of Switching Centers in a Communication Network and Some Related Graph Theoretic Problems. Operations Research. 1965, 13(3): 462-475.


Toregas, C., Swain, R., ReVelle, C., Bergman, L. The Location of Emergency Service Facilities. Operations Research, 1971, 19(6): 1363-1373.


Church, R., ReVelle, C. The Maximal Covering Location Problem. Papers of the Regional Science Association. 1974, 32(1): 101-118.


Xu, W., Ma, Y. J., Zhao, X. J., Li, Y., Qin, L. J., Du, J. A Comparison of Scenario-based Hybrid Bilevel and Multi-objective Location-allocation Models for Earthquake Emergency Shelters: A Case Study in the Central Area of Beijing, China. International Journal of Geographical Information Science, 2018, 32(2): 236-256.


Hu, F. Y., Yang, S. N., Xu, W. A Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm for the Location and Districting Planning of Earthquake Shelters. International Journal of Geographical Information Science, 2014, 28(7): 1482-1501.


Coutinho-Rodrigues, J., Tralhão, L., Alçada-Almeida, L. Solving a Location-routing Problem with a Multiobjective Approach: The Design of Urban Evacuation Plans. Journal of Transport Geography, 2012, 22(2), 206-218.


Wang, J., Situ, C. Q., Yu, M. Z. The Post-disaster Emergency Planning Problem with Facility Location and People/Resource Assignment. Kybernetes, 2020, 49(10): 2385-2418.


Wang, Y. Y., Xu, Z. S., Filip, F. G. Multi-Objective Model to Improve Network Reliability Level under Limited Budget by Considering Selection of Facilities and Total Service Distance in Rescue Operations. International Journal of Computers, Communications & Control, 2022, 17(1): 1-18.


Saadatseresht, M., Mansourian, A., Taleai, M. Evacuation Planning Using Multiobjective Evolutionary Optimization Approach. European Journal of Operational Research, 2009, 198(1): 305- 314.


Kulshrestha, A., Wu, D., Lou, Y. Y., Yin, Y. F. Robust Shelter Locations for Evacuation Planning with Demand Uncertainty. Journal of Transportation Safety & Security, 2011, 3(4): 272-288.


Xu, Z. S. Approaches to Multiple Attribute Decision Making with Intuitionistic Fuzzy Preference Information. Systems Engineering - Theory & Practice, 2007, 27(11): 62-71.


Gong, C. Investment Decision Analysis and Optimization: Based on Prospect Theory. Electronic industry press: Beijing, China, 2019.

Trivedi, A., Singh, A. A Hybrid Multi-objective Decision Model for Emergency Shelter Locationrelocation Projects Using Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process and Goal Programming Approach. International Journal of Project Management, 2017, 35(5): 827-840.


Ma, Y. J., Xu, W., Qin, L. J., Zhao, X. J. Site Selection Models in Natural Disaster Shelters: A Review. Sustainability, 2019, 11(2): 399.


Sabouhi, F., Tavakoli, Z. S., Bozorgi-Amiri, A., Sheu, J. B. A Robust Possibilistic Programming Multi-Objective Model for Locating Transfer Points and Shelters in Disaster Relief. Transportmetrica A: Transport Science, 2019, 15(2): 326-353.


Ng, M. W., Park, J., Waller, S. T. A Hybrid Bilevel Model for the Optimal Shelter Assignment in Emergency Evacuations. Computer-Aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering, 2010, 25(8): 547-556.


Tsai, C. H., Yeh, Y. L. The Study of Integrating Geographic Information with Multi-Objective Decision Making on Allocating the Appropriate Refuge Shelters: Using Kengting National Park as an Example. Natural Hazards, 2016, 82: 2133-2147.


Senik, B., Uzun, O. An Assessment on Size and Site Selection of Emergency Assembly Points and Temporary Shelter Areas in Düzce. Natural Hazards, 2021, 105: 1587-1602.


Nappi, M. M. L., Souza, J. C. Disaster Management: Hierarchical Structuring Criteria for Selection and Location of Temporary Shelters. Natural Hazards, 2015, 75: 2421-2436.


Aman, D. D., Aytac, G. Multi-Criteria Decision Making for City-scale Infrastructure of Postearthquake Assembly Areas: Case Study of Istanbul. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 2022, 67: 102668.


Wu, H. Y, Ren, P. J., Xu, Z. S. Addressing Site Selection for Earthquake Shelters with Hesitant Multiplicative Linguistic Preference Relation. Information Sciences, 2020, 516: 370-387.


Song, S. Y., Zhou, H., Song, W. Y. Sustainable Shelter-site Selection Under Uncertainty: A Rough QUALIFLEX Method. Computers & Industrial Engineering, 2019, 128: 371-386.


China Earthquake Administration. Site and Supporting Facilities for Earthquake Emergency Shelter (GB21734). China Standard Press: Beijing, China, 2008.

Wang, Y. Y., Zhou, B., Xu, Z. S. An Empirical Study on the Evaluation of Rural Human Settlement with Normal Distribution-Based Weighting Method and AHP. Mathematics in Practice and Theory, 2017, 47(16): 100-107.

Yager, R. R. On Ordered Weighted Averaging Aggregation Operators in Multicriteria Decision Making. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, 1988, 18(1): 183-190.


Xu, Z. S. An Overview of Methods for Determining OWA Weights. International Journal of Intelligent Systems, 2005, 20(8): 843-865.


Saaty, T. L. A Scaling Method for Priorities in Hierarchical Structures. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 1977, 15(3): 234-281.


Filip, F. G., Zamfirescu, C. B., Ciurea, C. Computer-supported collaborative decision-making. Springer, 2017.


Xiao, T. J. Behavioral Decision Theory: Modeling and Analysis. Science Press, Beijing, China, 2020.

Yang, B. A., Zhang, K. J. Research on Theory, Method and Application of Multi-objective Decision Analysis. Donghua university press: Shanghai, 2008.

Yu, W. Y. Reachability Guarantee Based Model for Pre-positioning of Emergency Facilities under Uncertain Disaster Damages. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 2020, 42: 101335.


Poorzahedy, H., Rouhani, O. M. Hybrid Meta-heuristic Algorithms for Solving Network Design Problem. European Journal of Operational Research, 2007, 182(2): 578-596.


Leon, E., Kelman, I., Kennedy, J., Ashmore, J. Capacity Building Lessons from a Decade of Transitional Settlement and Shelter. International Journal of Strategic Property Management, 2009, 13(3): 247-265.


Additional Files



Most read articles by the same author(s)

Obs.: This plugin requires at least one statistics/report plugin to be enabled. If your statistics plugins provide more than one metric then please also select a main metric on the admin's site settings page and/or on the journal manager's settings pages.