Effect of Sample Sizes in Fingerprinting Database for Wi-Fi System


  • Ahmad Hakimi bin Ahmad Sa'ahiry
  • Abdul Halim Ismail
  • Latifah Munirah Kamaruddin
  • Mohd Sani Mohamad Hashim
  • Muhamad Safwan Muhamad Azmi
  • Muhammad Juhairi Aziz Satar
  • Masahiro Toyoura




indoor positioning system, sample size, positioning accuracy, big data, fingerprinting, deep learning


Indoor positioning system has been an essential work to substitute the Global Positioning System (GPS). GPS utilizing Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) cannot provide an accurate positioning in the indoor due to the multipath effect and shadow fading. Fingerprinting method with Wi-Fi technology is a promising system to solve this issue. However, there are several problems with the fingerprinting method. The fingerprinting database collected has different sample sizes where the previous researcher does not indicate any standard for the sample size to be used. In this paper, the effect of the sample sizes in fingerprinting database for Wi-Fi technology has been discussed deeply. The statistical analyzation for different sample sizes has been analyzed. Furthermore, two methods which are K- Nearest Neighbor (KNN) and Deep Neural Network (DNN) are being used to examine the effect of the sample sizes in term of accuracy and distance error. The discussion in this paper will contribute to the better sample size selection depending on the method taken by the user. The result shows that sample sizes are an important metrics in developing the indoor positioning system as it effects the result of the location estimation.


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