Threshold Based Best Custodian Routing Protocol for Delay Tolerant Network


  • Qaisar Ayub Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
  • Soperi Mohd Zahid Faculty of Computing Universiti Teknologi Malaysia UTM Skudai, 81310 Johor,Malaysia
  • Sulma Rashid Faculty of Computing Universiti Teknologi Malaysia UTM Skudai, 81310 Johor,Malaysia
  • Abdul Hanan Abdullah Faculty of Computing Universiti Teknologi Malaysia UTM Skudai, 81310 Johor,Malaysia


Delay Tolerance Network, store-carry-forward, routing protocols, algorithms


Delay Tolerant Network (DTN) is a kind of network in which the source may not be able to establish the stable and uninterrupted path to destination due to network partitioning, dynamic topology change and frequent disconnections. In order to dealt disruption and disconnections a store, carry and forward paradigm is used in which node stores the incoming messages in its buffer, carries it while moving and forward when comes within the transmission range of other nodes. Message forwarding contributes and important role in increasing its delivery. For instance, probabilistic routing protocol forwards message to a node having high probability value to meet message destination. These protocols cannot handle a situation in which the node continually transmits messages even the probability difference is very small. In this paper, we have proposed a routing protocol known as Threshold Based best custodian Routing Protocol (TBbcRP) for delay tolerant network. We have proposed a threshold-based method to compute the quality value which is the ability of node to carry message. A self-learning mechanism has been used to remove the delivered messages from the network. Moreover, a buffer aware mechanism has been used that make sure availability of buffer space at receiver before message transmission. We have compared the performance of TBbcRP with Epidemic, PRoPHET and Delegated Forwarding. The proposed TBbcRP outperforms in terms of maximizing the delivery probability, reducing number of transmissions and message drop.


Ariyavisitakul, S. L. (2000); Turbo Space-Time Processing to Improve Wireless Channel Capacity. IEEE Transactions on Communications. 48(8): 1347-1359.

Yujin Lim.,Jesung Kim.,Sang Lyul Min.,Joong Soo Ma(2001);

Yujin Lim.,Jesung Kim.,Sang Lyul Min.,Joong Soo Ma(2001); Performance evaluation of the Bluetooth-based public Internet access point Information Networking, 2001. Proceedings. 15th International Conference on Information Networking, 643-648.

Latiff L.A.,Fisal, N.,. (2003); Routing protocols in wireless mobile ad hoc network - a review. The 9th Asia-Pacific Conference on Communications (APCC 2003), 600-604.

Murthy S., and J.J. Garcia-Luna-Aceves.(1996); An efficient routing protocol for wireless networks, Mobile Networks and Applications, 1(2):183-197.

Perkins C.E., and E.M. Royer. (1999); Ad-hoc on-demand distance vector routing, IEEE WMCSA 99, 90-100

Johnson D.B., and D.A. Maltz.(1996); Dynamic source outing in ad hoc wireless networks, Mobile computing, 153-181.

Fall, K. (2003); A Delay-Tolerant Network Architecture for Challenged Internets. In SIGCOMM 03: Proceedings of the 2003 Conference on Applications, Technologies, Architectures, and Protocols for Computer Communications. New York, NY, USA: ACM, 27-34.

Spyropoulos T., K. Psounis., and C.S Raghavendra.(2004); Single-copy routing in intermittently connected mobile networks. in Proc. IEEE Conf. Sensor and Ad Hoc Communications and Networks (SECON), 235-244.

Ramanathan, R., Hansen, R., Basu, P., Rosales-Hain, R. and Krishnan, R. (2007); Prioritized Epidemic Routing for Opportunistic Networks. In Proc. of the 1st International MobiSys Workshop on Mobile Opportunistic Networking, ACM, 62-66.

Spyropoulos, T., Psounis, K. and Raghavendra, C. (2005); Spray and Wait: An Efficient Routing Scheme for Intermittently Connected Mobile Networks. In Proceedings of the 2005 ACM SIGCOMM Workshop on Delay-Tolerant Networking, ACM, 252-259.

Spyropoulos, T., Psounis, K. and Raghavendra, C. S. (2007); Spray and Focus:Efficient Mobility-Assisted Routing for Heterogeneous and Correlated Mobility. In Fifth Annual IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications Workshops, PerCom Workshops 07, IEEE, 79-85.

Lindgren, A., Doria, A. and Schelen, O. (2004); Probabilistic Routing in Intermittently Connected Networks. In Service Assurance with Partial and Intermittent Resources. Springer, 239-254.

Vahdat, A., Becker, D. et al. (2000); Epidemic Routing for Partially Connected Ad hoc Networks. Technical report. Technical Report CS-200006, Duke University.

de Oliveira, E. C. and de Albuquerque, C. V. (2009); NECTAR: A DTN Routing Protocol Based on Neighborhood Contact History. In Proceedings of the 2009 ACM symposium on Applied Computing. ACM, 40-46.

Bulut, E., Geyik, S. C. and Szymanski, B. K. (2010); Conditional Shortest Path Routing in Delay Tolerant Networks. In IEEE International Symposium on a World of Wireless Mobile and Multimedia Networks (WoWMoM). IEEE, 1-6.

Srinivasa, S. and Krishnamurthy, S. (2009); CREST: An Opportunistic Forwarding Protocol Based on Conditional Residual Time. In 6th Annual IEEE Communications Society Conference on Sensor, Mesh and Ad Hoc Communications and Networks, SECON09, IEEE, 1-9.

Hua, D., Du, X., Qian, Y. and Yan, S. (2009); A DTN Routing Protocol Based on Hierarchy Forwarding and Cluster Control.In International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Security, CIS09, IEEE, 2: 397-401.

Wang, G., Wang, B. and Gao, Y. (2010); Dynamic Spray and Wait Routing Algorithm with Quality of Node in Delay Tolerant Network. In International Conference on Communications and Mobile Computing (CMC), IEEE, 3: 452-456.

Erramilli, V., et al. (2008); Delegation forwarding. ACM MOBIHOC08, 251-260.

Chen, X., et al.(2009); Probability delegation forwarding in delay tolerant networks. IEEE ICCCN09, 1-6.

T. Spyropoulos, K. Psounis, and C. S. Raghavendra (2007); Utility-based Message Replication for Intermittently Connected Heterogeneous Wireless Networks, in Proc. of IEEE WoWMoM workshop on Autonomic and Opportunistic Communications (AOC), (INRIA Technical Report RR-6129), June 2007.

Ling, S. and Wei, W. (2009); Feedback Adaptive Routing Algorithm for DTN. In WRI International Conference on Communications and Mobile Computing, CMC09, IEEE, 2: 267-271.

Liu, C. and J. Wu (2009); An optimal probabilistic forwarding protocolin delay tolerant networks. ACM MobiHoc 09, 105-114.

Ayub, Q., Zahid, M. S. M., Rashid, S., & Abdullah, A. H. (2013); DF++: An adaptive buffer-aware probabilistic delegation forwarding protocol for Delay Tolerant Network. Cluster Computing, 1-8.

Qaisar Ayub; M soperi Mohd Zahid; Abdul Hanan Abdullah; Sulma Rashid (2013); Connection frequency buffer aware routing protocol for delay tolerant network. Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology, 8(3): 649-657.

Wang, G., Wang, B. and Gao, Y. (2010); Dynamic Spray and Wait Routing Algorithm with Quality of Node in Delay Tolerant Network. In International Conference on Communications and Mobile Computing (CMC), IEEE, 3: 452-456.

Nelson, S. C., Bakht, M. and Kravets, R. (2009); Encounter-Based Routing in DTNs. In IEEE INFOCOM 2009, IEEE, 846-854.

Elwhishi, Ahmed, Pin-Han Ho, Sagar Naik, and Basem Shihada (2011); Contention aware routing for intermittently connected mobile networks, In AFIN 2011, the third international conference on advances in future internet, 8-15.

Jathar, R. and Gupta, A. (2010); Probabilistic Routing using Contact Sequencing in Delay Tolerant Networks. In 2010 Second International Conference on Communication Systems and Networks (COMSNETS), IEEE, 1-10.

Wang, Y., Li, X., & Wu, J. (2010); Multicasting in delay tolerant networks: delegation forwarding. In Global Telecommunications Conference (GLOBECOM 2010), IEEE, 1-5.

Keranen, A., Ott, J. and Karkkainen, T. (2009); The ONE Simulator for DTN Protocol Evaluation. Proc. of the 2nd International Conference on Simulation Tools and Techniques. ICST (Institute for Computer Sciences, Social-Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering), 1-10.



Most read articles by the same author(s)

Obs.: This plugin requires at least one statistics/report plugin to be enabled. If your statistics plugins provide more than one metric then please also select a main metric on the admin's site settings page and/or on the journal manager's settings pages.