Generic Multimodal Ontologies for Human-Agent Interaction


  • Adrian BraÅŸoveanu Lucian Blaga Univeristy of Sibiu, Romania E-mail:
  • Adriana Manolescu Agora University, Oradea and R&D Agora Ltd. Cercetare Dezvoltare Agora Oradea, Romania
  • Marian Nicu Spí®nu Aurel Vlaicu University of Arad, Faculty of Exact Sciences Department of Mathematics-Informatics Romania, 310330 Arad, 2 Elena Drăgoi


multimodal ontology, ontology matching, interface agents, Semantic Web, human-agent interaction


Watching the evolution of the Semantic Web (SW) from its inception to these days we can easily observe that the main task the developers face while building it is to encode the human knowledge into ontologies and the human reasoning into dedicated reasoning engines. Now, the SW needs to have efficient mechanisms to access information by both humans and artificial agents. The most important tools in this context are ontologies. The last years have been dedicated to solving the infrastructure problems related to ontologies: ontology management, ontology matching, ontology adoption, but as time goes by and these problems are better understood the research interests in this area will surely shift towards the way in which agents will use them to communicate between them and with humans. Despite the fact that interface agents could be bilingual, it would be more efficient, safe and swift that they should use the same language to communicate with humans and with their peers. Since anthropocentric systems entail nowadays multimodal interfaces, it seems suitable to build multimodal ontologies. Generic ontologies are needed when dealing with uncertainty. Multimodal ontologies should be designed taking into account our way of thinking (mind maps, visual thinking, feedback, logic, emotions, etc.) and also the processes in which they would be involved (multimodal fusion and integration, error reduction, natural language processing, multimodal fission, etc.). By doing this it would be easier for us (and also fun) to use ontologies, but in the same time the communication with agents (and also agent to agent talk) would be enhanced. This is just one of our conclusions related to why building generic multimodal ontologies is very important for future semantic web applications.


T. Berners-Lee, J. Hendler, O. Lassila. The Semantic Web. Scientific American, May 2001, 34-43.

N. Shadbolt, W. Hall, T. Berners-Lee. The Semantic Web revisited. IEEE Intelligent Systems, pages 96- 101, May/June 2006.

T. Berners-Lee, W. Hall, J.A. Hendler, K. O'Hara, N. Shadbolt, D.J. Weitzner. A Framework for Web Science. Foundations and Trends in Web Science, 1 (1), pages 1-130, 2006.

C. Bizer, T. Heath, T. Berners-Lee. Linked Data - The Story So Far. International Journal on Semantic Web and Information Systems, Volume 5, Issue 3.

I. Cearreta, J. M. Lopez, N. Garay-Vitoria. Modelling multimodal context-aware affective interaction. Proceedings of the Doctoral Consortium of the Second international conference on ACII'07. Lisbon, Portugal, 57-64, 2007.

F. Dalpiaz, P. Giorgini, J. Mylopoulos. An Architecture for Requirements-driven Self- Reconfiguration. Proc. of the 21st Int. Conf. on Advanced Information Systems Engineering, LNCS 5565, Springer, 246- 260, pgiorgio/papers/caise09-b.pdf, 2009.

B. Dumas, D. Lalanne, S. Oviatt. Multimodal Interfaces: A Survey of Principles, Models and Frameworks. In D. Lalame, J. Kohlas, editors, Human Machine Interaction Research Results of the MMI Program, Springer, 3-27, 2009.

I. Dzitac, B.E. Barbat. Artificial Intelligence + Distributed Systems = Agents. International Journal of Computers, Communications & Control, ISSN 1841-9836, 4(1):17-26, 2009.

D.W. Embley, A. Zitzelberger. Theoretical Foundations for Enabling a Web of Knowledge. Retrieved from:, 2009.

J. Euzenat, P. Shvaiko. Ontology Matching. Springer, 2007

A. Ghazvinian, N. F. Noy, C. Jonquet, N. H. Shah, M. A. Musen. What Four Million Mappings Can Tell You about Two Hundred Ontologies. International Semantic Web Conference 2009: 229-242

T. R. Gruber. A Translation Approach to Portable Ontologies. Knowledge Acquisition, 5(2):199- 220, 1993.

M. Gruninger. Designing and Evaluating Generic Ontologies. In 'ECAI96's workshop on Ontological Engineering'.

T. Gruber. Collective knowledge systems: Where the social web meets the semantic web. Journal of Web Semantics, 6(1):4-13, 2008.

N. Guarino. The Ontological Level: Revisiting 30 Years of Knowledge Representation. In A. Borgida, V. Chaudhri, P. Giorgini, E. Yu (eds.), Conceptual Modelling: Foundations and Applications, Springer Verlag 2009: 52-67.

N. Guarino, D. Oberle, S. Staab. What is an Ontology? In S. Staab and R. Studer (eds.), Handbook on Ontologies, Second Edition. International handbooks on information systems. Springer Verlag: 1-17, 2009.

G. Guizzardi, T. Halpin. Ontological foundations for conceptual modeling. Applied Ontology 3, 1- 12, 2008.

A. Hartholt, T. Russ, D. Traum, E. Hovy, S. Robinson. A common ground for virtual humans: Using an ontology in a natural language oriented virtual human architecture. In: Language Resources and Evaluation Conference (LREC). (May 2008)

W. Hu, Y. Qu. Falcon-AO: A practical ontology matching system. Web Semantics: Science, Services and Agents on the World Wide Web 6 (2008) 237-239.

A. Jaimez, N. Sebe. Multimodal human-computer interaction: A survey. Computer Vision and Image Understanding, Volume 108, Issues 1-2, October-November 2007, 116-134, Special Issue on Vision for Human-Computer Interaction, 2007.

F. Limpens, F.Gandon, and M. Buffa. Linking folksonomies and ontologies for supporting knowledge sharing: a state of the art. Technical report, EU Project, ISICIL, 2009.

D. Lonsdale, D. W. Embley, Y. Ding, L. Xu, M. Hepp. Reusing Ontologies and Language Components for Ontology Generation, accepted for publication in Data and Knowledge Engineering. Retrieved from:, 2010.

P. Mika. Social Networks and The Semantic Web, Springer, 2007

J. Niekrasz and M. Purver. A multimodal discourse ontology for meeting understanding. In The 2nd Joint Workshop on Multimodal Interaction and Related, 2005.

L. Nigay, J. Coutaz. A design space for multimodal systems: Concurrent processing and data fusion. ACM Conf. Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI), 1993.

F. S. Parreiras, C. Saathoff, T. Walter, T. Franz, S. Staab. APIs a gogo: Automatic Generation of Ontology APIs. icsc, 342-348, 2009 IEEE International Conference on Semantic Computing, 2009

C. Saathoff, A. Scherp. M3O: The Multimedia Metadata Ontology. Proceedings of the Workshop on Semantic Multimedia Database Technologies, 10th International Workshop of the Multimedia Metadata Community (SeMuDaTe 2009), Graz, Austria, 2009.

Abraham Sebastian, Natalya Fridman Noy, Tania Tudorache, and Mark A. Musen. A generic ontology for collaborative ontology-development workflows. In Aldo Gangemi and Jérôme Euzenat, editors, EKAW, volume 5268 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 318-328. Springer, 2008.

A.A.A. Shareha, M. Rajeswari, D. Ramachandram. Multimodal Integration (Image and Text) Using Ontology Alignment. American Journal of Applied Sciences 6 (6): 1217-1224, 2009.

P. Shvaiko, J. Euzenat. Ten challenges for ontology matching. In Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Ontologies, DataBases, and Applications of Semantics (ODBASE), pages 1164-1182, Monterrey (MX), 2008.

W. V. Siricharoen. Ontology Modeling and Object Modeling in Software Engineering. International Journal of Software Engineering and Its Applications, Vol. 3, No. 1, January, 2009, 43-59, 2009.

P. Smart, J. Bao, D. Braines, N. Shadbolt. Development of a Controlled Natural Language Interface for Semantic MediaWiki. In: Proceedings of the Workshop on Controlled Natural Language, Springer- Verlag, Heidelberg, Germany.

D. Sonntag, M. Romanelli. A multimodal result ontology for integrated semantic web dialogue applications. In Proceedings of the 5th Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC 2006), Genova, Italy, May 24-26.

A. Tenschert, M. Assel, A. Cheptsov, G. Gallizo, E. Della Valle, I. Celino. Parallelization and Distribution Techniques for Ontology Matching in Urban Computing Environments. OM 2009

D. Traum, S. Marsella, J. Gratch, J. Lee, and A. Hartholt. Multi-party, multi-issue, multistrategy negotiation for multi-modal virtual agents. In Proc. of Intelligent Virtual Agents Conference IVA-2008.

M. Uschold. Ontology-Driven Information Systems: Past, Present and Future. In Proceedings of the 5thInternational Conference on Formal Ontology in Information Systems (FOIS2008), Saarbrücken, Germany, (Oct 31st - Nov 3rd), 2008.



Most read articles by the same author(s)

Obs.: This plugin requires at least one statistics/report plugin to be enabled. If your statistics plugins provide more than one metric then please also select a main metric on the admin's site settings page and/or on the journal manager's settings pages.