Routing Optimization for Delay Tolerant Networks in Rural Applications Using a Distributed Algorithm
Keywords:Disruption-Tolerant, Delay-Tolerant, availability probability, opportunistic
AbstractInternet access can improve people’s life quality by helping them to reduce and overcome the poverty and educational gaps. However, most rural communities in the world, specially in underdeveloped countries, do not have access to the Internet. Delay/Disruption Tolerant Networking (DTN) is a recent low-cost technology now being used to provide connectivity to rural towns were some transportation means periodically arrive. DTNs can be implemented to connect communities to Internet, since this technology takes advantage of the existing people’s transportation infrastructure using it to move packets and messages to and from Internet.
This paper proposes a DTN mathematical optimization model that maximizes the availability probabilities of the paths from sources to destinations. We also present an opportunistic forwarding algorithm that takes into account the availability probability of a node’s neighbors to decide if a node should forward a message or store the message until a node with a higher availability probability contacts it. This algorithm was tested in five different scenarios and in all of them it found a path to the destination.
(2013), Measuring the Information Society, International Telecommunication Union. [Online]. vailable: http://www.itu.int/en/ITU-D/Statistics/Pages/default.aspx
Cerf, V.; Burleigh, S.; Hooke, A.; Torgerson, L.; Durst, R.; Scott, K.; Fall, K. & Weiss, H. (2007), Delay-tolerant networking architecture, RFC4838, April, 1-35.
Andrew T. & Petkov, D. (2003) The need for a systems thinking approach to the planning f rural telecommunications infrastructure, Telecommunications Policy, 27:75-93. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0308-5961(02)00095-2
Johnson D. L. & Roux, K. (2008), Building rural wireless networks: Lessons learnt and uture directions, Proceedings of the 2008 ACM workshop on Wireless networks and systems or developing regions. ACM, 17-22.
Ruxwana, N. L.; Herselman, M. E. & Conradie, D. P. (2010), ICT applications as e-health solutions n rural healthcare in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa, Health information anagement journal, Health Information Management Association of Australia, Limited, 9(1):17-26.
De Savigny, D.; Kasale, H.; Mbuya, C. & Reid, G. (2008), Fixing health systems: linking esearch, development, systems, and partnerships, IDRC.
Donner, J. (2004), Innovations in mobile-based public health information systems in the eveloping world: an example from Rwanda, Workshop on mobile technologies and health: enefits and risks.
De Blasio, G. (2008), Urban-rural differences in internet usage, e-commerce, and e-banking: vidence from Italy, Growth and Change, 39(2): 341-367. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2257.2008.00422.x
(2013) Care, [Online]. Available: http://www.care.org
Warren, M. (2002), Adoption of ICT in agricultural management in the United Kingdom: he intra-rural digital divide, ZEMEDELSKA EKONOMIKAPRAHA, 48(1), pp. 1-8.
(2013) Fair trade USA, [Online]. Available: http://www.fairtradeusa.org/
Sohoo, S. (2008), ICT initiative of SAARC agriculture centre in the SAARC region, Computer cience and Information Technology. ICCSIT 08. International Conference on. IEEE, 23-929.
Steinfield, C.; LaRose, R.; Chew, H. E. & Tong, S.T. (2012), Small and medium-sized enterprises n rural business clusters: The relation between ICT adoption and benefits derived rom cluster membership, The Information Society, 28(2):110-120. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01972243.2012.651004
Kannabiran, G.; Xavier, M. & Banumathi, T. (2008), E-governance and ICT enabled rural evelopment in developing countries: critical lessons from RASI project in India, International ournal of Electronic Government Research (IJEGR), 4(3): 1-19.
Cheng, A.; Sinha, A.; Shen, J.; Mouakkad, S.; Joseph, L. & Mehta, K. (2012), Opportunities or social innovation at the intersection of ICT education and rural supply chains, Global umanitarian Technology Conference (GHTC), IEEE, 328-335.
Scott, K. (2009) Delay/disruption tolerant networking, LISA09 Invited Talk, USENIX. [Online]. vailable: http://static.usenix.org/events/lisa09/stream1/scott.htm
Warthman, F. (2012), Delay- and Disruption-Tolerant Networks (DTNs). A Tutorial. V. .0, Interplanetary Internet Special Interest Group, 2012.
Burleigh, S.; Cerf, V.; Durst, R.; Hooke, A.; Rumeau, R.; Scott, K.; Travis, E. & Weiss, H. (2001), The Interplanetary Internet: The Next Frontier in Mobility, Internet Global Summit, une, 2001.
Durst, R. C.; Feighery, P. D. & Scott, K. L. (2000), Why not use the standard internet suite or the interplanetary internet, InterPlanetary Internet (IPN) Technical Information.
Fall, K. (2003), A delay-tolerant network architecture for challenged internet, Proceedings of he 2003 conference on Applications, technologies, architectures, and protocols for computer ommunications, 27-34.
Scott, K. L. & Burleigh, S. (2007), Bundle protocol specification, RFC5050, November, 1-50.
Akyildiz, I. F.; Akan, O. B.; Chen, C.; Fang, J. & Su, W. (2003), InterPlaNetary Internet: tate-of-the-art and research challenges, Computer Networks, 43(2):75-112. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1389-1286(03)00345-1
Khabbaz, M. J.; Assi, C. M. & Fawaz, W. F. (2012), Disruption-tolerant networking: A omprehensive survey on recent developments and persisting challenges, Communications urveys & Tutorials, IEEE, 14(2), 607-640.
Demmer, M. J. (2008), A Delay Tolerant Networking and System Architecture for Developing egions, PhD thesis, University of California at Berkeley.
Pentland, A.; Fletcher, R. & Hasson, A. (2004), Daknet: Rethinking connectivity in developing ations, Computer, 37(1):78-83. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/MC.2004.1260729
Seth, A.; Kroeker, D.; Zaharia, M.; Guo, S. & Keshav, S. (2006), Low-cost communication or rural internet kiosks using mechanical backhaul, Proceedings of the 12th annual nternational conference on Mobile computing and networking, 334-345.
(2013), Technology and Infrastructure for Emerging Regions, University of California at erkeley. [Online]. Available: http://tier.cs.berkeley.edu/drupal/
Montoya, G. A.; Velasquez-Villada, C. & Donoso, Y. (2013), Energy Optimization in Mobile ireless Sensor Networks with Mobile Targets Achieving Efficient Coverage for Critical pplications, International Journal of Computers Communications & Control, 8(2), 247- 54. http://dx.doi.org/10.15837/ijccc.2013.2.305
Velasquez-Villada, C. & Donoso, Y. (2013), Multipath Routing Network Management Protocol or Resilient and Energy Efficient Wireless Sensor Networks, 1st International Conference n Information Technology and Quantitative Management (ITQM), Suzhou, China, May 6-18, 2013, Procedia Computer Science, 17:387-394.
Montoya, G. A. & Donoso, Y. (2013), Energy Load Balancing Strategy to Extend Lifetime n Wireless Sensor Networks, 1st International Conference on Information Technology and uantitative Management (ITQM), Suzhou, China, May 16-18, 2013, Procedia Computer cience, 17:395-402
Velasquez-Villada, C.; Solano, F. & Donoso, Y. (2014), Opportunistic Forwarding Algorithm or Delay Tolerant Networks in Rural Applications, International Conference on Computers ommunications & Control, Romania, Oradea, Baile Felix, May 6-10, 2014, Abstracts of CCCC 2014, ISSN 1844-4334.
ONLINE OPEN ACCES: Acces to full text of each article and each issue are allowed for free in respect of Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0.
You are free to:
-Share: copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format;
-Adapt: remix, transform, and build upon the material.
The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms.
DISCLAIMER: The author(s) of each article appearing in International Journal of Computers Communications & Control is/are solely responsible for the content thereof; the publication of an article shall not constitute or be deemed to constitute any representation by the Editors or Agora University Press that the data presented therein are original, correct or sufficient to support the conclusions reached or that the experiment design or methodology is adequate.