Steganalysis of ±k Steganography based on Noncausal Linear Predictor

  • K. Manglem Singh Dept of CSE NIT Manipur, Imphal -795001 India
  • Yambem Jina Chanu Department of Computer Science & Engineering, NERIST, Itanagar, India
  • Themrichon Tuithung Department of Computer Science & Engineering, NERIST, Itanagar, India


The paper proposes a novel steganalytic technique for ±k steganographybased on noncausal linear predictor using prediction coefficients obtained from the autocorrelationmatrix for a block of pixels in the stego-image. The image is divided intoequal-size blocks, autocorrelation matrix is found for the block, and the appropriatenoncausal linear prediction coefficients is selected to predict all pixels in that block. Apixel is assumed to be embedded with message bit if the absolute difference betweenthe original pixel value and predicted pixel value exceeds the pre-defined threshold.The effectiveness of the proposed technique is verified using different images.


[1] Kawaguchi E.; Noda H.; Niimi M.; Eason R.O. (2003); A Model of Anonymous Covert Mailing System Using Steganographic Scheme, in Information modelling and knowledge bases, XIV, H. Yaakkola et al. (Eds), IOS Press, 81-85.

[2] Wang H.; Wang S. (2004); Cyber Warfare Steganography vs Steganalysis, ACM Commun., 47: 76-82.

[3] Anderson R.J.; Pettitcolas, F.A.P. (1998); On The Limits Of Steganography, IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communication, 16(4): 474-481.

[4] Zhang X.; Wang S. (2006); Dynamically Running Coding In Digital Watermarking, IEEE Signal Processing Letters, 13(3): 165-168.

[5] Provos N.; Honeyman P. (2003); Hide And Seek: An Introduction To Steganography, IEEE Security And Privacy, 1(3): 32-44.

[6] Westfeld A.; Pfitzmann A. (1999); Attack On Steganographic Systems, Proc. Information Hiding - 3rd Intel Workshop, Springer Verlag, 61-76.

[7] Fridrich J.; Goljan M. (2000); Practical Steganalysis Of Digital Images - State Of The Art, Security And Watermarking Of Multimedia Contents IV, E.J. Delp III and P.W. Wong, editors, Proc. of SPIE, 4675, 1-13.

[8] Zhi L.; Fen S.A.; Xian Y.Y.A. (2003); LSB Steganography Detection Algorithm, Proc. IEEE ISPIMRC, 2780-2783.
LSB Steganography Detection Algorithm, Proc. IEEE ISPIMRC, 2780-2783.

[9] Zhang T.; Ping X. (2003); Reliable Detection Of LSB Steganography Based On The Difference Image Histogram, IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, 3: 545-548.

[10] Mielikainen J. (2006); LSB Matching Revisted, IEEE Signal Processing Letters, 13(5): 285-287.

[11] Li X.; Yang B.; Cheng D.; Zeng T. (2009); A Generalization Of LSB Matching, IEEE Signal Processing Letters, 16(2): 69-72.

[12] Fridrich J.; Soukal D.; Goljan M. (2005); Maximum Likehood Destination Of Secret Message Length Embedded Using PMK Steganography In Spatial Domain, Proc. Of IST/SPIE Electronic Imaging: Security, Steganography And Watermarking Of Multimedia Contents, VII, 5681, 595-606.

[13] Balram N.; Moura M.F. (1996); Noncausal Predictive Image Codec, IEEE Trans. On Image Processing, 5(8): 1229-1242.

[14] Schroeder M.R.; Atal B.S. (1985); Code-excited Linear Prediction (CELP): High Quality Speech At Very Low Bit Rates, IEEE Proc. ICASSP, 937-940.

[15] Fang W.; Yagle A.E. (1994); Two-dimensional Linear Prediction And Spectral Estimation In Polar Raster, IEEE Trans. On Signal Processing, 42(3): 628-641.

[16] Jain A.K. (1989); Fundamental of Digital Image Processing, Prentice Hall, Information and System Science Series.

[17] Singh K. M. (2012); Vector Median Filter Based On Noncausal Linear Prediction For Detection Of Impulse Noise From Images, Inderscience International Journal of Computational Science and Engineering, 7(4): 345-355.
How to Cite
MANGLEM SINGH, K.; CHANU, Yambem Jina; TUITHUNG, Themrichon. Steganalysis of ±k Steganography based on Noncausal Linear Predictor. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMPUTERS COMMUNICATIONS & CONTROL, [S.l.], v. 9, n. 5, p. 623-632, aug. 2014. ISSN 1841-9844. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 24 sep. 2020. doi:


LSB embedding, noncausal linear predictor, RS analysis, steganalysis, steganography