DCM: D Number Extended Cognitive Map. Application on Location Selection in SCM

Lian Zhou, Fuyuan Xiao


Offshore outsourcing is a widely used management technique for performing business functions with the aim of reducing labor and transportation costs. The selection of locations has a significant influence on the supply chain’s resilience and qualities, but the influence of multiple external factors on the supply chain’s performance in local places in a complex and uncertain environment has not been examined. In this study, we investigated the influence of external factors in a highly uncertain and complicated situation in which relationships between external factors and supply chain resilience are complicated. Furthermore, we proposed a novel model to select locations from a comprehensive perspective. Specifically, the fuzzy cognitive map (FCM) is utilized to simulate the dynamic influence process where the adjacency is aggregated by D numbers. The weights of different resilience capabilities are considered from the perspective of maximizing benefits by using the decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory-analytic network processes (DEMATEL-ANP) model. By comparing the distance to the ideal solutions, we selected the best alternative location. Our results differ from the general case, which reveals that the weights of different capabilities influence selections.


Offshore outsourcing; Supply chain resilience; Location selection; FCM; D number; DEMATEL-ANP; Multicriteria decision making

Full Text:



Ali, S.; Hongqi, L.; Khan, S.U.; Zhongguo, Y.; Liping, Z. (2017. Success factors for software outsourcing partnership management: An exploratory study using systematic literature review. IEEE Access, 5, 23589-23612, 2017.

Dekkers, R.(2000). Decision models for outsourcing and cor competencies in manufacturing. International Journal of Production Research, 38(17), 4085-4096, 2000.

Dempster, A.P. (1967). Upper and lower probabilities induced by a multivalued mapping. The annals of mathematical statistics, 325-339, 1967.

Dong, Y.; Zhang, J.; Li, Z.; Hu, Y.; Deng, Y.(2019). Combination of evidential sensor reports with distance function and belief entropy in fault diagnosis. International Journal of Computers Communications & Control, 14(3), 293-307, 2019.

Fontela, E.; Gabus, A.(1976). The dematel observer, Battelle Geneva Research Center, Geneva, 1976.

Gao, X.; Deng, Y. (2019). The generalization negation of probability distribution and its application in target recognition based on sensor fusion. International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks,15(5), 381, 2019.

Giret, A.; Julián, V.; Corchado, J.M.; Fernández, A.; Salido, M.A.; Tang, D.(2018). How to choose the greenest delivery plan: A framework to measure key performance indicators for sustainable urban logistics. IFIP International Conference on Advances in Production Management Systems, 181-189, 2018.

Guan, X.; Liu, H.; Yi, X.; Zhao, J.(2018). The Improved Combination Rule of D Numbers and Its Application in Radiation Source Identification, Mathematical Problems in Engeneering, Article ID 6025680, 2018.

Gurtu, A.; Searcy, C.; Jaber, M. (2016). Effects of offshore outsourcing on a nation. Sustainable Production and Consumption, 7, 94-105, 2016.

Gylling, M.; Heikkilä, J.; Jussila, K.; Saarinen, M. (2015). Making decisions on offshore outsourcing and backshoring: A case study in the bicycle industry. International Journal of Production Economics, 162, 92-100, 2015.

Han, Y.; Deng, Y.(2018). An enhanced fuzzy evidential dematel method with its application to identify critical success factors. Soft computing, 22(15), 5073-5090, 2018.

Han, Y.; Deng, Y. (2018). An evidential fractal ahp target recognition method. Defence Science Journal, 68(4), 367-373, 2018.

Han, Y.; Deng, Y.(2018). A hybrid intelligent model for assessment of critical Ambient intelligence, 9(6), 1933-1953, 2018.

Han, Y.; Deng, Y. (2019). A novel matrix game with payoffs of maxitive belief structure, International Journal of Intelligent Systems, 34(4), 690-706

Han, Y.; Deng, Y.; Cao, Z.; Lin, C.(2019). An interval-valued pythagorean prioritized operator-based game theoretical framework with its applications in multicriteria group decision making, Neural Computing and Applications, 1-19, 2019.

Lai, Y.J.; Liu, T.Y.; Hwang, C.L.(1994). Topsis for modm. European journal of operational research, 76(3), 486-500, 1994.

Li, Y.; Deng, Y.(2019). TDBF: Two Dimension Belief Function. International Journal of Intelligent Systems, 34(8), 1968-1982, 2019.

Lin, S.; Li, C.; Xu, F.; Liu, D.; Liu, J. (2018). Risk identification and analysis for new energy power system in China based on D numbers and decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL), Journal of Cleaner Production,180, 81-96, 2018.

Liu, P.; Zhang, X.(2019). A multicriteria decision-making approach with linguistic D numbers based on the Choquet integral, Cognitive Computation, 11(4), 560-575, 2019.

Mo, H.; Deng, Y.(2019). An evaluation for sustainable mobility extended by D numbers, Technological and Economic Development of Economy, 25(5), 802-819, 2019.

Mousavi, S.M.; Antuchevicien˙e, J.; Zavadskas, E.K.; Vahdani, B.; Hashemi, H.(2019). A new decision model for cross-docking center location in logistics networks under interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy uncertainty, Transport, 34(1), 30-40, 2019.

Mukherjee, D.; Gaur, A.S.; Datta, A.(2013). Creating value through offshore outsourcing: An integrative framework, Journal of International Management, 19(4), 377-389, 2013.

O'keefe, J.; Nadel, L.(1978). The hippocampus as a cognitive map, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1978.

Papageorgiou, E.; Stylios, C.; Groumpos, P.(2003). Fuzzy cognitive map learning based on nonlinear hebbian rule, Australasian Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence, 256-268, 2003.

Pereira, V.; Anderson, V.(2012). A longitudinal examination of hrm in a human resources offshoring (hro) organization operating from india. Journal of World Business, 47(2), 223- 231, 2012.

Saaty, T.L.(1980). The analytic hierarchy process: planning. Priority Setting. Resource Allocation, MacGraw-Hill, New York International Book Company, 1980.

Saaty, T.L.(1996). Decision making with dependence and feedback. The analytic network process, Rws Publications, 1996.

Shafer, G., et al.(1976). A mathematical theory of evidence, vol. 1. Princeton university press, Princeton, 1976.

Shankar, R.; Choudhary, D.; Jharkharia, S.(2018). An integrated risk assessment model: A case of sustainable freight transportation systems, Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 63, 662-676, 2018.

Shukla, A.; Agarwal, P.; Rana, R.; Purohit, R.(2017). Applications of topsis algorithm on various manufacturing processes: A review. Materials Today: Proceedings, 4(4), 5320-5329, 2017.

Singh, P.; Agrawal, R.(2018). A customer centric best connected channel model for heterogeneous and iot networks, Journal of Organizational and End User Computing, 30(4), 32-50, 2018.

Sun, R.; Deng, Y.(2019). A new method to identify incomplete frame of discernment in evidence theory, IEEE Access, 7, 15547-15555

Sun, R.; Deng, Y.(2019). A new method to determine generalized basic probability assignment in the open world, IEEE Access, 7, 52827-52835, 2019.

Tsai, S.B.; Zhou, J.; Gao, Y.; Wang, J.; Li, G.; Zheng, Y.; Ren, P.; Xu, W.(2017). Combining fmea with dematel models to solve production process problems. Plos One, 12(8), e0183, 634, 2017.

Yadlapalli, A.; Rahman, S.; Gunasekaran, A.(2018). Socially responsible governance mechanisms for manufacturing firms in apparel supply chains. International Journal of Production Economics, 196, 135-149, 2018.

Yang, H.; Deng, Y. (2019). A bio-inspired optimal network division method, Physica A: Statistical Mechanics & Its Applications, 527, 210-219

Yang, H.; Deng, Y.; Jones, J. (2018). Network division method based on cellular growth and physarum-inspired network adaptation, International Journal of Unconventional Computing, 13(6), 477-491, 2018.

Yoon, K.; Hwang, C.L. (1981). Multiple attribute decision making: methods and applications, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1981.

Yoon, K.P.; Kim, W.K.(2017). The behavioral topsis. Expert Systems with Applications, 89, 266-272, 2017.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.15837/ijccc.2019.5.3585

Copyright (c) 2019 Fuyuan Xiao

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

CC-BY-NC  License for Website User

Articles published in IJCCC user license are protected by copyright.

Users can access, download, copy, translate the IJCCC articles for non-commercial purposes provided that users, but cannot redistribute, display or adapt:

  • Cite the article using an appropriate bibliographic citation: author(s), article title, journal, volume, issue, page numbers, year of publication, DOI, and the link to the definitive published version on IJCCC website;
  • Maintain the integrity of the IJCCC article;
  • Retain the copyright notices and links to these terms and conditions so it is clear to other users what can and what cannot be done with the  article;
  • Ensure that, for any content in the IJCCC article that is identified as belonging to a third party, any re-use complies with the copyright policies of that third party;
  • Any translations must prominently display the statement: "This is an unofficial translation of an article that appeared in IJCCC. Agora University  has not endorsed this translation."

This is a non commercial license where the use of published articles for commercial purposes is forbiden. 

Commercial purposes include: 

  • Copying or downloading IJCCC articles, or linking to such postings, for further redistribution, sale or licensing, for a fee;
  • Copying, downloading or posting by a site or service that incorporates advertising with such content;
  • The inclusion or incorporation of article content in other works or services (other than normal quotations with an appropriate citation) that is then available for sale or licensing, for a fee;
  • Use of IJCCC articles or article content (other than normal quotations with appropriate citation) by for-profit organizations for promotional purposes, whether for a fee or otherwise;
  • Use for the purposes of monetary reward by means of sale, resale, license, loan, transfer or other form of commercial exploitation;

    The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms.

[End of CC-BY-NC  License for Website User]

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMPUTERS COMMUNICATIONS & CONTROL (IJCCC), With Emphasis on the Integration of Three Technologies (C & C & C),  ISSN 1841-9836.

IJCCC was founded in 2006,  at Agora University, by  Ioan DZITAC (Editor-in-Chief),  Florin Gheorghe FILIP (Editor-in-Chief), and  Misu-Jan MANOLESCU (Managing Editor).

Ethics: This journal is a member of, and subscribes to the principles of, the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).

Ioan  DZITAC (Editor-in-Chief) at COPE European Seminar, Bruxelles, 2015:

IJCCC is covered/indexed/abstracted in Science Citation Index Expanded (since vol.1(S),  2006); JCR2018: IF=1.585..

IJCCC is indexed in Scopus from 2008 (CiteScore2018 = 1.56):

Nomination by Elsevier for Journal Excellence Award Romania 2015 (SNIP2014 = 1.029): Elsevier/ Scopus

IJCCC was nominated by Elsevier for Journal Excellence Award - "Scopus Awards Romania 2015" (SNIP2014 = 1.029).

IJCCC is in Top 3 of 157 Romanian journals indexed by Scopus (in all fields) and No.1 in Computer Science field by Elsevier/ Scopus.


 Impact Factor in JCR2018 (Clarivate Analytics/SCI Expanded/ISI Web of Science): IF=1.585 (Q3). Scopus: CiteScore2018=1.56 (Q2); Editors-in-Chief: Ioan DZITAC & Florin Gheorghe FILIP.