Improving DTNs Performance by Reduction of Bundles Redundancy using Clustering Algorithm

Radosław Olgierd Schoeneich, Piotr Prus


This article presents complex clustering algorithm for Delay Tolerant Networks (DTNs) including neighborhood discovery, cluster creation, and data distribution within cluster. The general idea is to reduce the amount of messages being sent and of buffer utilization, by taking advantage of the nodes tendency to create groups and to share similar mobility patterns among each other. The main purpose of the algorithm is to improve the network performance without major changes in communication schemes between nodes. Almost no extra message type is added. Most extra features are available thanks to adding small extra fields into transmitted packages. Neighborhood discovery is being realized passively by listening to other nodes messages. The proposed algorithms allow to reduce both the bandwidth occupation, as well as the problems related to the media access. Furthermore, it can increase message delivery probability thanks to intelligent package distribution inside created cluster. Simulations were carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed solution in terms of package delivery probability, mean buffer occupancy and mean hop number to delivery the message. Results of simulation show that this solution is not necessary or recommended for small-scale networks with few nodes using clustering algorithms. However, with increasing number of nodes and messages, the performance of non-clustered DTNs drops significantly while clustered network works efficiently.


Delay Tolerant Networks (DTNs), mobile ad-hoc networks, clustering algorithms, cluster based routing, neighborhood discovery in ad-hoc networks

Full Text:



Ahn, CW.; Ramakrishna, RS.; Kang CG. (2002); Efficient Clustering-based Routing Protocol in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks, in Proc. IEEE VTC 02, 1647–1651, 2002.

Burleigh, S.; Hooke, A.; Torgerson, L.; Fall, K.; Cerf, V.; Durst, B.; Scott, K.; Weiss H. (2003); Delay-tolerant networking: an approach to interplanetary internet, IEEE Commun. Mag., 128–136, 2003.

Buttyan, L.; Schaoer, P. (2010); PANEL: Position-Based Aggregator Node Election in Wireless Sensor Networks, Int.J. Distrib. Sens. Netw, 1–16, 2010.

Chan, H.; Perrig, A. (2004); An Emergent Algorithm for Highly Uniform Cluster Formation, Wireless Sensor Network, 154–171, 2004.

Chiang, CC.; Wu, HK.; Liu, A.; Gerla M. (1998); Routing in clustered multi-hop mobile wireless networks with fading channel, in Proc. of IEEE SICON 98, 197–211, 1998.

Crepaldi, R.; Bakht, M.; Kravets R. (2012); QuickSilver: application-driven inter- and intra-cluster communication in Vanets, in Proc. ACM MobiOpp 02,, 69–76, 2012.

Dang, H.; Wu H. (2010); Clustering and Cluster-based Routing Protocol for Delay-tolerant Mobile Networks, IEEE Trans. Wireless. Comm, 9(6), 1874–1881, 2010.

Ding, P.; Holliday, J.; Celik A. (2005); Distributed Energy Effcient Hierarchical Clustering for Wireless Sensor Networks. in Proc. IEEE DCOSS, 322–339, 2005.

Fall, K. (2003); A delay-tolerant network architecture for chalenged internets, in Proc. of The 2003 conference on Applications, technologies, architectures, and protocols for computer communications (SIGCOMM '03), 27–34, 2003.

Fan, CS. (2016); HIGH: A Hexagon-based Intelligent Grouping Approach in Wireless Sensor Networks, Advances in Electrical and Computer Engineering, 16(1), 41–46, 2016.

Fang, W.; Li, S.; Liang, X.; Li, Z. (2012); Cluster-based Data Gathering in Long- Strip Wireless Sensor Networks, Advances in Electrical and Computer Engineering, 12(1), 3–8, 2012.

Golanski, M.; Schoeneich, RO.; Siwko, M. (2010); The algorithm for distribution of largesize data in the Wireless Ad-hoc Sensor Network, in proc. Concepts and Implementation for Innovative Military Communications and Information Technologies, Military University of Technology, 577–584, 2010.

Heinzelman, WR.; Chandrakasan, A.; Balakrishnan, H. (2000); Energy-Efficient Communication Protocol for Wireless Microsensor Networks. in Proc. HICSS 07, 10–19, 2000.

Iwata, A.; Chiang, C-C.; Gerla, M;, Chen. TW. (1999); Scalable Routing Strategies for Ad hoc Wireless Networks, IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, 17, 1369–1379, 1999.

Jacquet, P.; Muhlethaler, P.; Clausen, T.; Laouiti, A.; Qayyum, A.; Viennot, L. (2001); Optimized Link State Routing Protocol for Ad Hoc Networks, IEEE Trans. Wireless. Comm., 62–68, 2001.

Jung, S.; Han, Y.; Chung, T. (2007); The Concentric Clustering Scheme for Effcient Energy Consumption in the PEGASIS. in Proc. IEEE ICACT 07, 260–265, 2007.

Kim, SK.; Yoon, JH.; Lee, J.; Yang, SB. (2015); HCS: hierarchical cluster-based forwarding scheme for mobile social networks, Wirel. Netw., 21(5), 1699–1711, 2015.

Koutsonikola, D.; Das, S.; Charlie, HY.; Stojmenovic, I. (2010); Hierarchical geographic multicast routing for wireless sensor networks, Wirel. Netw., 16(2), 449–466, 2010.

Li, C.; Ye, M.; Chen, G.; Wu, J. (2005); An Energy Effcient Unequal Clustering Mechanism for Wireless Sensor Networks, in Proc. IEEE MASS 05, 596–604, 2005.

Lindgren, A.; Doria, A.; Schelen, O. (2003); Probabilistic routing in intermittently connected networks, ACM SIGMOBILE Mobile Computing and Communications Review, 19–20, 2003.

Lindsey, S.; Raghavendra, C.; Sivalingam, LM. (2002); Data gathering algorithms in sensor networks using energy metrics, IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst., 13(9), 924–935, 2002.

Liu, X. (2012); A Survey on Clustering Routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks. Sensors, 11113–11153, 2012.

Luo, H.; Ye, F.; Cheng, J.; Lu, S.; Zhang, L. (2005); TTDD: Two-tier data dissemination in large-scale wireless sensor networks, Wirel. Netw., 11(1), 160–175, 2005.

Loscri, V.; Morabito, G.; Marano, S. (2005); A Two-Level Hierarchy for Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy, in Proc. IEEE VTC -5, 1809–1813, 2005.

Manjeshwar, E.; Agrawal, DP. (2001); TEEN: A Routing Protocol for Enhanced Effciency in Wireless Sensor Networks, in Proc. IEEE IPDPS 01, 2009–2015, 2001.

Manjeshwar, E.; Agrawal, DP. (2002); APTEEN: A Hybrid Protocol for Effcient Routing and Comprehensive Information Retrieval in Wireless Sensor Networks, in Proc. IEEE IPDPS 02, 195–202, 2002.

Murugunathan, SD.; Ma, DCF.; Bhasin, RI.; Fapajuwo, AO. (2005); A Centralized Energy-Effcient Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks, IEEE Radio Commun, 43(3), 8–13, 2005.

Schoeneich, RO.; Golanski, M. (2007); Mesh Cluster Based Routing Protocol: Enhancing Multi-hop Internet Access using Cluster paradigm, in Proc. EUROCON, 2007. The International Conference on Computer as a Tool, 962–965, 2007.

Spyropoulos, T.; Psounis, K.; Raghavendra, CS. (2005); Spray and wait: an efficient routing scheme for intermittently connected mobile networks, in Proc. of The 2005 ACM SIGCOMM workshop on Delay-tolerant networking, 252-259, 2005.

Soro, S.; Heinzelman, W. (2005); Prolonging the Lifetime of Wireless Sensor Networks via Unequal Clustering, in Proc. IEEE WMAN 05, 236–243, 2005.

Su, YY.; Hwang, SF.; Dow, CR. (2008); An Efficient Cluster-Based Routing Algorithm in Ad Hoc Networks with Unidirectional Links, Journal of Information Science And Engineering, 24(5), 1409–1428, 2008.

Vahdat, A.; Becker, D. (2000); Epidemic routing for partially connected ad hoc networks. Tech Report CS-2000-06, 2000.

Wei, C.; Yang, J.; Gao, Y.; Zhang, Z. (2011); Cluster-Based Routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey, inProc. IEEE ICCSNT 11, 1659–1663, 2011.

Yau, S.; Gao, W. (2007); Multi-hop clustering based on neighborhood benchmark in mobile ad-hoc networks, Mob. Netw. Appl, 12(5), 381–391, 2007.

Ye, M.; Li, C.; Chen, G.; Wu, J. (2005); EECS: An Energy Efficient Clustering Scheme in Wireless Sensor Networks, in Proc. IEEE IPCCC.05, 535–540, 2005.

Younis, O.; Fahmy, S. (2004); HEED: A hybrid, energy-efficient, distributed clustering approach for ad-hoc sensor networks, IEEE Trans. Mobile Comput., 3(4), 366–379, 2004.


Copyright (c) 2018 Radosław Olgierd Schoeneich

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

CC-BY-NC  License for Website User

Articles published in IJCCC user license are protected by copyright.

Users can access, download, copy, translate the IJCCC articles for non-commercial purposes provided that users, but cannot redistribute, display or adapt:

  • Cite the article using an appropriate bibliographic citation: author(s), article title, journal, volume, issue, page numbers, year of publication, DOI, and the link to the definitive published version on IJCCC website;
  • Maintain the integrity of the IJCCC article;
  • Retain the copyright notices and links to these terms and conditions so it is clear to other users what can and what cannot be done with the  article;
  • Ensure that, for any content in the IJCCC article that is identified as belonging to a third party, any re-use complies with the copyright policies of that third party;
  • Any translations must prominently display the statement: "This is an unofficial translation of an article that appeared in IJCCC. Agora University  has not endorsed this translation."

This is a non commercial license where the use of published articles for commercial purposes is forbiden. 

Commercial purposes include: 

  • Copying or downloading IJCCC articles, or linking to such postings, for further redistribution, sale or licensing, for a fee;
  • Copying, downloading or posting by a site or service that incorporates advertising with such content;
  • The inclusion or incorporation of article content in other works or services (other than normal quotations with an appropriate citation) that is then available for sale or licensing, for a fee;
  • Use of IJCCC articles or article content (other than normal quotations with appropriate citation) by for-profit organizations for promotional purposes, whether for a fee or otherwise;
  • Use for the purposes of monetary reward by means of sale, resale, license, loan, transfer or other form of commercial exploitation;

    The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms.

[End of CC-BY-NC  License for Website User]

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMPUTERS COMMUNICATIONS & CONTROL (IJCCC), With Emphasis on the Integration of Three Technologies (C & C & C),  ISSN 1841-9836.

IJCCC was founded in 2006,  at Agora University, by  Ioan DZITAC (Editor-in-Chief),  Florin Gheorghe FILIP (Editor-in-Chief), and  Misu-Jan MANOLESCU (Managing Editor).

Ethics: This journal is a member of, and subscribes to the principles of, the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).

Ioan  DZITAC (Editor-in-Chief) at COPE European Seminar, Bruxelles, 2015:

IJCCC is covered/indexed/abstracted in Science Citation Index Expanded (since vol.1(S),  2006); JCR2016: IF=1.374. .

IJCCC is indexed in Scopus from 2008 (CiteScore 2017 = 1.04; SNIP2017 = 0.616, SJR2017 =0.326):

Nomination by Elsevier for Journal Excellence Award Romania 2015 (SNIP2014 = 1.029): Elsevier/ Scopus

IJCCC was nominated by Elsevier for Journal Excellence Award - "Scopus Awards Romania 2015" (SNIP2014 = 1.029).

IJCCC is in Top 3 of 157 Romanian journals indexed by Scopus (in all fields) and No.1 in Computer Science field by Elsevier/ Scopus.


 Impact Factor in JCR2017 (Clarivate Analytics/SCI Expanded/ISI Web of Science): IF=1.29 (Q3). Scopus: CiteScore2017=1.04 (Q2); Editors-in-Chief: Ioan DZITAC & Florin Gheorghe FILIP.