Delay/Disruption Tolerant Networking-Based Routing for Rural Internet Connectivity (DRINC)

Carlos Velásquez-Villada, Yezid Donoso


Rural networking connectivity is a very dynamic and attractive research field. Nowadays big IT companies and many governments are working to help connect all these rural, disconnected people to Internet. This paper introduces a new routing algorithm that can bring non-real-time Internet connectivity to rural users. This solution is based on previously tested ideas, especially on Delay/Disruption Tolerant Networking technologies, since they can be used to transmit messages to and from difficult to access sites. It introduces the rural connectivity problem and its context. Then, it shows the proposed solution with its mathematical model used to describe the problem, its proposed heuristic, and its results. The advantage of our solution is that it is a low-cost technology that uses locally available infrastructure to reach even the most remote towns. The mathematical model describes the problem of transmitting messages from a rural, usually disconnected user, to an Internet connected node, through a non-reliable network using estimated delivery probabilities varying through time. The forwarding algorithm uses local knowledge gathered from interactions with other nodes, and it learns which nodes are more likely to connect in the future, and which nodes are more likely to deliver the messages to the destination. Our algorithm achieves an equal or better performance in delivery rate and delay than other well-known routing protocols for the rural scenarios tested. This paper adds more simulation results for the proposed rural scenarios, and it also extends the explanation of the mathematical model and the heuristic algorithm from the conference paper "Delay/Disruption Tolerant Networks Based Message Forwarding Algorithm for Rural Internet Connectivity Applications" [1] (doi: 10.1109/ICCCC. 2016.7496732).


dtn routing, opportunistic forwarding, rural connectivity, rural internet, non-real-time communications

Full Text:



Velásquez-Villada, C.; Donoso, Y. (2016); Delay/Disruption Tolerant Networks Based Message Forwarding Algorithm for Rural Internet Connectivity Applications, Computers Communications and Control (ICCCC), 2016 6th International Conference on, IEEE Xplore, e-ISSN 978-1-5090-1735-5, doi: 10.1109/ICCCC.2016.7496732, 16-22.

La Rue, F. (2011); Report of the Special Rapporteur on the promotion and protection of the right to freedom of opinion and expression Special Procedures of the Human Rights Council, United Nations.

International Telecommunication Union. (2016); Measuring the Information Society.

Velásquez-Villada, C.; Solano, F.; Donoso Y. (2015); Routing Optimization for Delay Tolerant Networks in Rural Applications Using a Distributed Algorithm. International Journal of Computers, Communications and Control. 10(1):100-111.

Cerf, V. et al. (2007); RFC4838-Delay-Tolerant Networking Architecture. IETF RFC 4838.

Pentland, A. S.; Fletcher, R.; Hasson, A. (2004); Daknet: Rethinking connectivity in developing nations. Computer, 37(1):78-83.

Lindgren, A. et al. (2012); Probabilistic routing protocol for intermittently connected networks. Technical report, IETF RFC 6693, Experimental.

Keranen, A.; Ott, J.; Karkkainen T. (2009); The ONE simulator for DTN protocol evaluation, Proc. of the 2nd intl. conf. on simulation tools and techniques, ICST, art.55, 1-10.

Scott, K.; Burleigh, S. (2007); RFC5050: Bundle protocol specification. IETF RFC 5050.

Warthman, F. (2015); Delay and Disruption-Tolerant Networks (DTNs) A Tutorial. Based on Technology Developed by the DTN Research Group (DTN-RG), Version 3.2, 1-35.

Google Inc. (2016); Loon Project.

Google Inc. (2016); Link Project.

Facebook Inc. (2016);

Choubey, N.; Panah, A. Y. (2016); Introducing Facebook's new terrestrial connectivity systems Terragraph and Project ARIES.

Ministerio de Tecnologías de la Información y las Comunicaciones, Gobierno de Colombia. (2011); Proyecto Nacional de Fibra Óptica.

Watkins, J.; Tacchi, J.; Kiran, M.S. (2009); The role of intermediaries in the development of asynchronous rural access. In Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction. Applications and Services, 451-459. Springer.

Vahdat, A.; Becker, D. (2000); Epidemic routing for partially connected ad hoc networks.

Spyropoulos, T.; Psounis, K.; Raghavendra, C. S. (2005); Spray and wait: an efficient routing scheme for intermittently connected mobile networks. Proceedings of the 2005 ACM SIGCOMM workshop on Delay-tolerant networking, 252-259.

Khabbaz, M. J.; Assi, C. M.; Fawaz, W. F. (2012); Disruption-tolerant networking: A comprehensive survey on recent developments and persisting challenges. Communications Surveys & Tutorials, IEEE, 14(2):607-640.

Cao, Y.; Sun, Z. (2013); Routing in delay/disruption tolerant networks: A taxonomy, survey and challenges. Communications Surveys & Tutorials, IEEE, 15(2):654-677.

Psaras, I.; Wood, L.; Tafazolli, R. (2010); Delay-/disruption-tolerant networking: State of the art and future challenges. University of Surrey, Technical Report.

Velásquez-Villada C; Donoso Y. (2016); Delay/Disruption Tolerant Network-Based Message Forwarding for a River Pollution Monitoring Wireless Sensor Network Application. Sensors, 16:1-25.

OpenJUMP GIS (2016)


Copyright (c) 2017 Carlos Velásquez-Villada, Yezid Donoso

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

CC-BY-NC  License for Website User

Articles published in IJCCC user license are protected by copyright.

Users can access, download, copy, translate the IJCCC articles for non-commercial purposes provided that users, but cannot redistribute, display or adapt:

  • Cite the article using an appropriate bibliographic citation: author(s), article title, journal, volume, issue, page numbers, year of publication, DOI, and the link to the definitive published version on IJCCC website;
  • Maintain the integrity of the IJCCC article;
  • Retain the copyright notices and links to these terms and conditions so it is clear to other users what can and what cannot be done with the  article;
  • Ensure that, for any content in the IJCCC article that is identified as belonging to a third party, any re-use complies with the copyright policies of that third party;
  • Any translations must prominently display the statement: "This is an unofficial translation of an article that appeared in IJCCC. Agora University  has not endorsed this translation."

This is a non commercial license where the use of published articles for commercial purposes is forbiden. 

Commercial purposes include: 

  • Copying or downloading IJCCC articles, or linking to such postings, for further redistribution, sale or licensing, for a fee;
  • Copying, downloading or posting by a site or service that incorporates advertising with such content;
  • The inclusion or incorporation of article content in other works or services (other than normal quotations with an appropriate citation) that is then available for sale or licensing, for a fee;
  • Use of IJCCC articles or article content (other than normal quotations with appropriate citation) by for-profit organizations for promotional purposes, whether for a fee or otherwise;
  • Use for the purposes of monetary reward by means of sale, resale, license, loan, transfer or other form of commercial exploitation;

    The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms.

[End of CC-BY-NC  License for Website User]

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMPUTERS COMMUNICATIONS & CONTROL (IJCCC), With Emphasis on the Integration of Three Technologies (C & C & C),  ISSN 1841-9836.

IJCCC was founded in 2006,  at Agora University, by  Ioan DZITAC (Editor-in-Chief),  Florin Gheorghe FILIP (Editor-in-Chief), and  Misu-Jan MANOLESCU (Managing Editor).

Ethics: This journal is a member of, and subscribes to the principles of, the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).

Ioan  DZITAC (Editor-in-Chief) at COPE European Seminar, Bruxelles, 2015:

IJCCC is covered/indexed/abstracted in Science Citation Index Expanded (since vol.1(S),  2006); JCR2018: IF=1.585..

IJCCC is indexed in Scopus from 2008 (CiteScore2018 = 1.56):

Nomination by Elsevier for Journal Excellence Award Romania 2015 (SNIP2014 = 1.029): Elsevier/ Scopus

IJCCC was nominated by Elsevier for Journal Excellence Award - "Scopus Awards Romania 2015" (SNIP2014 = 1.029).

IJCCC is in Top 3 of 157 Romanian journals indexed by Scopus (in all fields) and No.1 in Computer Science field by Elsevier/ Scopus.


 Impact Factor in JCR2018 (Clarivate Analytics/SCI Expanded/ISI Web of Science): IF=1.585 (Q3). Scopus: CiteScore2018=1.56 (Q2);

SCImago Journal & Country Rank

Editors-in-Chief: Ioan DZITAC & Florin Gheorghe FILIP.