Initial Phase Proximity for Reachback Firefly Synchronicity in WSNs: Node Clustering
AbstractSynchronicity is one of the essential basic services to support the main duties of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). Synchronicity is the ability to arrange simultaneously collective actions in WSNs. A high-rate data sampling to analyze the seismic structure and volcanic monitoring is the important applications requiring a synchronicity. However, most of the existing synchronicity algorithm is still executed in a flat network, so that it requires a long time to achieve a synchronous condition. To increase the convergence rate, the synchronicity can be executed concurrently through a clustering scheme approach. In this work, the such scheme is called as the Node Clustering based on Initial Phase Proximity for Reachback Firefly Synchronicity (NCIPP-RFS). The NCIPP-RFS solves in three steps: (1) constructing the node clustering, (2) intra-cluster synchronicity, and (3) inter-cluster synchronicity. The NCIPP-RFS method is based on the firefly-inspired algorithm. The fireflies are a species in the natural system, which are able to manage their flashing for synchronicity in a distributed manner. The NCIPP-RFS was implemented in NS-3 and evaluated and compared with Reachback Firefly Algorithm (RFA). The simulation results show a significant increase in the convergence rate. The NCIPP-RFS can reach a convergence time shorter than the RFA. In addition, the NCIPP-RFS was compared in the various numbers of clusters, where the least number of clusters can reach the fastest convergence rate. Finally, it can also contribute significantly to the increase of the convergence rate if the number of nodes is greater than or equal to 50 nodes.
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