A Forward-connection Topology Evolution Model in Wireless Sensor Networks

Changlun Zhang, Chao Li, Nan Ning


The stability and reliability of the topology structure play an important role in the efficiency of the data collecting for wireless sensor networks. In this paper, a topology evolution model is proposed. The model considers the directionality of the data flow, and adopts the forward connectionism to ensure the neighbor nodes of each node. Furthermore, the model considers the balanced energy overhead in each communication path, adopts the energy balanced mechanism to compute the connection probability to the neighbor nodes. Meanwhile, the process of topology evolution is distributed and the communication radiuses of all sensor nodes are limited. A theoretical analysis exhibits that the model has power-law distribution of node degrees. Simulation shows that the proposed topology evolution model make energy overhead more balanced, and prolongs the lifetime of the network.


wireless sensor networks; topology evolution; energy balanced mechanism; power-law distribution

Full Text:



J. Yick, B. Mukherjee, D. Ghosal (2008); Wireless sensor network survey, Computer Networks, 52(12): 2292-2330.

A. Mainwaming, J. Polastre, R. Szewczyk, D. Culler, J. Anderson (2002); Wireless sensor networks for habitat monitoring, Proc. of ACM International Workshop on wireless serlsor Networks and Applications, 88-97.

G. J. Pottie, W. J. Kaiser (2000); Wireless Integrated Network Sensors, Communication of the ACM, 43(5): 51-58.

C. Rotariu, H. Costin, I. Alexa, G. Andruseac, V. Manta, B. Mustata (2010); E-Health System for Medical Telesurveillance of Chronic Patients, International Journal of Computers Communications & Control, 5(5): 900-909.

M. E. J. Newman, D. J. Watts (1999) Renormalization Group Analysis of the Small-World Network Model, Physics Letters A, 263(4): 341-346.

A. L. Barabasi, R. Albert (1999); Emergence of scaling in random networks, Science, 286(5439): 509-512.

S. Lindsey. C. S. Raghavendra (2002); Pegasis: Power-Efficient gathering in sensor information systems, Proc of the IEEE Aerospace Conf, 18(4):305-314.

H. Tan (2003); Power efficient data gathering and aggregation in wireless sensor networks, Acm Sigmod Record, 32(4): 66 - 71.

X. Y. Li, P. Wan, Y Wang, C. W. Yi (2003); Fault tolerant deployment and topology control in wireless networks, Proceedings of the Fourth Acm Symposium on Mobile Ad Hoc Networking and Computing, 117-128.

T. Bernd, M. Heinrich (2005); Topology control for fault tolerant communication in highly dynamic wireless networks, Proceedings of the 3rd International Workshop on Intelligent Solutions in Embedded Systems, 89-100.

A. Kashyap, S. Khuller, M Shayman (2006); Relay Placement for Higher Order Connectivity in Wireless Sensor Networks, Infocom IEEE International Conference on Computer Communications, 1-12.

W. R. Heinzelman, A. Chandrakasan, H. Balakrishnan (2000); Energy-efficient communication protocol for wireless microsensor networks, System Sciences Proceedings of Annual Hawaii International Conference on, DOI: 10.1109/HICSS.2000.926982.

S. Bandyopadhyay, E. J. Coyle (2003); An energy efficient hierarchical clustering algorithm for wireless sensor networks, In Proc. of IEEE INFOCOM, 1713 - 1723.

O. Younis, S. Member, S. Fahmy (2004); HEED: A Hybrid, Energy-Efficient, Distributed Clustering Approach for Ad Hoc Sensor Networks, IEEE Trans. Mobile Computing, 366–379.

L. J. Chen, M. Liu, D. X. Chen, L. Xie (2009); Topology evolution of wireless sensor networks among cluster heads by random walkers, Chinese journal of computers, 32(1): 69-76.

H. Zhu, H. Luo, H. Peng, L. Li, Q. Luo (2009); Complex networks-based energy-efficient evolution model for wireless sensor networks, Chaos Solitons and Fractals the Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science and Nonequilibrium and Complex Phenomenal, 41(4): 1828- 1835.

X. Qi, S. Ma, G. Zheng (2011); Topology Evolution of Wireless Sensor Networks Basedon Adaptive Free-scale Networks, Journal of Information and Computational Science, 8(3): 467- 475.

Y. Q. Wang, X. Y. Yang (2012); Study on a model of topology evolution of wireless sensor networks among cluster heads and its immunization, Acta Physica Sinica, 2012, 61(9): 1321- 1323.

X. Luo, H. Yu, X. Wang. Energy-Aware Topology Evolution Model with Linkand Node Deletion in Wireless Sensor Networks, Mathematical Problems in Engineering, 55(1): 256- 267.

A. Barabasi, R. Albert, H. Jeong (1999); Mean-field theory for scale-free random networks, Physica A Statistical Mechanics and Its Applications, 272: 173-187.

S. Madden, M. J. Franklin, J. M. Hellerstein (2002); TAG: A Tiny Aggregation Service for Ad-Hoc Sensor Networks, Proceedings of the Usenix Symposium on Operating Sysems Design & Implementation, 14-22.

M. Hussaini, H. Bello-Salau, A. F. Salami, F. Anwar, A. H. Abdalla (2012); Enhanced clustering routing protocol for power-efficient gathering in wireless sensor network, International Journal of Communication Networks and Information Security, 18-28.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.15837/ijccc.2016.4.2544

Copyright (c) 2017 Changlun Zhang, Chao Li, Nan Ning

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

IJCCC is an Open Access Journal : CC-BY-NC.

Articles published in IJCCC user license are protected by copyright.

Users can access, download, copy, translate the IJCCC articles for non-commercial purposes provided that users, but cannot redistribute, display or adapt:

  • Cite the article using an appropriate bibliographic citation: author(s), article title, journal, volume, issue, page numbers, year of publication, DOI, and the link to the definitive published version on IJCCC website;
  • Maintain the integrity of the IJCCC article;
  • Retain the copyright notices and links to these terms and conditions so it is clear to other users what can and what cannot be done with the  article;
  • Ensure that, for any content in the IJCCC article that is identified as belonging to a third party, any re-use complies with the copyright policies of that third party;
  • Any translations must prominently display the statement: "This is an unofficial translation of an article that appeared in IJCCC. Agora University  has not endorsed this translation."

This is a non commercial license where the use of published articles for commercial purposes is forbiden. 

Commercial purposes include: 

  • Copying or downloading IJCCC articles, or linking to such postings, for further redistribution, sale or licensing, for a fee;
  • Copying, downloading or posting by a site or service that incorporates advertising with such content;
  • The inclusion or incorporation of article content in other works or services (other than normal quotations with an appropriate citation) that is then available for sale or licensing, for a fee;
  • Use of IJCCC articles or article content (other than normal quotations with appropriate citation) by for-profit organizations for promotional purposes, whether for a fee or otherwise;
  • Use for the purposes of monetary reward by means of sale, resale, license, loan, transfer or other form of commercial exploitation;

    The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms.

[End of CC-BY-NC  License for Website User]

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMPUTERS COMMUNICATIONS & CONTROL (IJCCC), With Emphasis on the Integration of Three Technologies (C & C & C),  ISSN 1841-9836.

IJCCC was founded in 2006,  at Agora University, by  Ioan DZITAC (Editor-in-Chief),  Florin Gheorghe FILIP (Editor-in-Chief), and  Misu-Jan MANOLESCU (Managing Editor).

Ethics: This journal is a member of, and subscribes to the principles of, the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).

Ioan  DZITAC (Editor-in-Chief) at COPE European Seminar, Bruxelles, 2015:

IJCCC is covered/indexed/abstracted in Science Citation Index Expanded (since vol.1(S),  2006); JCR2018: IF=1.585..

IJCCC is indexed in Scopus from 2008 (CiteScore2018 = 1.56):

Nomination by Elsevier for Journal Excellence Award Romania 2015 (SNIP2014 = 1.029): Elsevier/ Scopus

IJCCC was nominated by Elsevier for Journal Excellence Award - "Scopus Awards Romania 2015" (SNIP2014 = 1.029).

IJCCC is in Top 3 of 157 Romanian journals indexed by Scopus (in all fields) and No.1 in Computer Science field by Elsevier/ Scopus.


 Impact Factor in JCR2018 (Clarivate Analytics/SCI Expanded/ISI Web of Science): IF=1.585 (Q3). Scopus: CiteScore2018=1.56 (Q2);

SCImago Journal & Country Rank

Editors-in-Chief: Ioan DZITAC & Florin Gheorghe FILIP.