Pathogen Variability. A Genomic Signal Approach

Paul Dan Cristea


The conversion of genomic symbolic sequences into digital signals has been applied for the analysis pathogen variability. Results are given on the variability of Human Immunodeficiency Virus, type 1, subtype F, isolated in Romania, and of the type A avian influenza virus H5N1, for which sequences have been downloaded from GenBank [1]. Nucleotide sequence analysis is corroborated with techniques based on the genomic signal approach to detect pathogen resistance to antiretroviral treatment. In the case of protease (PR) inhibitors, it is found that the treatment induces single nucleotide polimorphisms (SNPs) in specific sites. For moderate resistance, the changes affect the PR enzyme only at the level of the protein, whereas for multiple drug resistance, the RNA gene secondary structure also changes.


Genomic signals, Pathogen variability, HIV, Influenza, Orthomyxoviridae, Drug resistance

Full Text:



National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Institutes of Health, National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, GenBank,

P. D. Cristea, "Representation and Analysis of DNA sequences", in Genomic Signal Processing and Statistics, Editors E.G. Dougherty, I. Shmulevici, Jie Chen, Z. J. Wang, Book Series on Signal Processing and Communications, Hidawi, 2005, pp.15-65.

P. D. Cristea, D. Otelea, Rodica Tuduce, "Study of HIV Variability Based on Genomic Signal Analysis of Protease and Reverse Transcriptase Genes", EMBC'05, Sept. 2005, Shanghai, China.

P. D. Cristea, "Genomic Signal Analysis of Pathogen Variability", SPIE, BO24, paper 5699-52, San Jose, Jan, 2005, 12 pg.

E. Chargaff, "Structure and function of nucleic acids as cell constituents", Fed. Proc., 10, pp. 654- 659, 1951.

D.L. Suarez,, Comparisons of highly virulent H5N1 influenza A viruses isolated from humans and chickens from Hong Kong, J. Virology, vol. 72 (8), pp. 6678-6688, 1998. (AF046080-99).

E. Ghedin, N. Sengamalay, M. Shumway et al., "Large-scale sequencing of human influenza reveals the dynamic nature of viral genome evolution", Nature, vol. 437, Oct. 2005, pp.1162-1166.

M.S. Hirsch et al., "Antiretroviral Drug Resistance Testing in Adult HIV-1 Infection", in Proc. Recommendations of an International AIDS Society - USA Panel, JAMA, vol. 283, no. 18, May 10, 2000, pp.2417-2426.


Copyright (c) 2017 Paul Dan Cristea

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

CC-BY-NC  License for Website User

Articles published in IJCCC user license are protected by copyright.

Users can access, download, copy, translate the IJCCC articles for non-commercial purposes provided that users, but cannot redistribute, display or adapt:

  • Cite the article using an appropriate bibliographic citation: author(s), article title, journal, volume, issue, page numbers, year of publication, DOI, and the link to the definitive published version on IJCCC website;
  • Maintain the integrity of the IJCCC article;
  • Retain the copyright notices and links to these terms and conditions so it is clear to other users what can and what cannot be done with the  article;
  • Ensure that, for any content in the IJCCC article that is identified as belonging to a third party, any re-use complies with the copyright policies of that third party;
  • Any translations must prominently display the statement: "This is an unofficial translation of an article that appeared in IJCCC. Agora University  has not endorsed this translation."

This is a non commercial license where the use of published articles for commercial purposes is forbiden. 

Commercial purposes include: 

  • Copying or downloading IJCCC articles, or linking to such postings, for further redistribution, sale or licensing, for a fee;
  • Copying, downloading or posting by a site or service that incorporates advertising with such content;
  • The inclusion or incorporation of article content in other works or services (other than normal quotations with an appropriate citation) that is then available for sale or licensing, for a fee;
  • Use of IJCCC articles or article content (other than normal quotations with appropriate citation) by for-profit organizations for promotional purposes, whether for a fee or otherwise;
  • Use for the purposes of monetary reward by means of sale, resale, license, loan, transfer or other form of commercial exploitation;

    The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms.

[End of CC-BY-NC  License for Website User]

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMPUTERS COMMUNICATIONS & CONTROL (IJCCC), With Emphasis on the Integration of Three Technologies (C & C & C),  ISSN 1841-9836.

IJCCC was founded in 2006,  at Agora University, by  Ioan DZITAC (Editor-in-Chief),  Florin Gheorghe FILIP (Editor-in-Chief), and  Misu-Jan MANOLESCU (Managing Editor).

Ethics: This journal is a member of, and subscribes to the principles of, the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).

Ioan  DZITAC (Editor-in-Chief) at COPE European Seminar, Bruxelles, 2015:

IJCCC is covered/indexed/abstracted in Science Citation Index Expanded (since vol.1(S),  2006); JCR2018: IF=1.585..

IJCCC is indexed in Scopus from 2008 (CiteScore2018 = 1.56):

Nomination by Elsevier for Journal Excellence Award Romania 2015 (SNIP2014 = 1.029): Elsevier/ Scopus

IJCCC was nominated by Elsevier for Journal Excellence Award - "Scopus Awards Romania 2015" (SNIP2014 = 1.029).

IJCCC is in Top 3 of 157 Romanian journals indexed by Scopus (in all fields) and No.1 in Computer Science field by Elsevier/ Scopus.


 Impact Factor in JCR2018 (Clarivate Analytics/SCI Expanded/ISI Web of Science): IF=1.585 (Q3). Scopus: CiteScore2018=1.56 (Q2);

SCImago Journal & Country Rank

Editors-in-Chief: Ioan DZITAC & Florin Gheorghe FILIP.