EECDA: Energy Efficient Clustering and Data Aggregation Protocol for Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks

Dilip Kumar, Trilok C. Aseri, R.B. Patel


In recent years, energy efficiency and data gathering is a major concern in many applications of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). One of the important issues in WSNs is how to save the energy consumption for prolonging the network lifetime. For this purpose, many novel innovative techniques are required to improve the energy efficiency and lifetime of the network. In this paper, we propose a novel Energy Efficient Clustering and Data Aggregation (EECDA) protocol for the heterogeneous WSNs which combines the ideas of energy efficient cluster based routing and data aggregation to achieve a better performance in terms of lifetime and stability. EECDA protocol includes a novel cluster head election technique and a path would be selected with maximum sum of energy residues for data transmission instead of the path with minimum energy consumption. Simulation results show that EECDA balances the energy consumption and prolongs the network lifetime by a factor of 51%, 35% and 10% when compared with Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH), Energy Efficient Hierarchical Clustering Algorithm (EEHCA) and Effective Data Gathering Algorithm (EDGA), respectively.


clustering; data aggregation; lifetime; heterogeneous wireless sensor networks

Full Text:



R Kumar, V. Tsiatsis, M.B. Srivastava, Computation Hierarchy for In-Network Processing, Proceedings of 2nd ACM International Workshop on Wireless Networks and Applications, San Diego, CA, 68-77, 2003.

D. Kumar, T. C. Aseri, R.B. Patel, HCEE: Hierarchical clustered energy efficient protocol for heterogeneous wireless sensor networks, International Journal of Electronics Engineering, 1(1):123-126, 2009.

J. Yu, P. Chong, A Survey of Clustering Schemes for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks, IEEE Communication Surveys,7(1): 32-48, 2005.

N. Vlajic, D. Xia, Wireless Sensor Networks: To Cluster or Not to Cluster?, Proceedings of International Symposium on a Wireless of Wireless , Mobileand Multimedia Networks

W.S. Jang, W.M. Heley, M.J. Skibniewsk, Wireless Sensor Networks as a Part of Web Based Building Environment Monitoring System, Automation in Construction Journal, 17: 729-736, 2008.

B. Krishnamachari, D. Estrin, S.B. Wicker, The Impact of Data Aggregation in Wireless Sensor Networks, Proceedings of 22nd International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems Workshops (ICDCSW'02), 575-578, 2002.

W.B. Heinzelman, A.P. Chandrakasan, H. Balakrishnan, An Application-Specific Protocol Architecture for Wireless Microsensor Networks, IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, 1(4):660-669, 2002.

S. Lindesy, C. Raghavendra, PEGASIS: Power-Efficient Gathering in Sensor Information System, Proceedings of IEEE Aerospace Conference, 1-6, 2002.

K. Dasgupta, K. Kalpakis, P. Namjoshi, An Efficient Clustering-Based Heuristic for Data Gathering and Aggregation in Sensor Networks, Proceedings of Wireless Communication and Networking (WCNC'03), 3: 1948-1953, 2003.

G. Smaragdakis, I. Matta, A. Bestavros, SEP: A Stable Election Protocol For Clustered Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks, Proceedings of 2nd International Workshop on Sensor and Actor Network Protocols and Applications (SANPA'04),Boston, MA, 660-670, 2004.

V. Mhatre, C. Rosenberg, Homogeneous vs. Heterogeneous Clustered Sensor Networks: A Comparative Study, Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC'04), 2004.

M. Ye, C. Li, G. Chen, J. Wu, EECS: An Energy Efficient Clustering Scheme in Wireless Sensor Networks, Proceedings of 24th IEEE International Performance, Computing and Communications Conference (IPCCC'05), 535- 540, 2005.

D. Wei, H. A. Chan, Clustering Ad Hoc Networks: Schemes and Classifications, Proceedings of 3rd Annual IEEE Communication Society on Sensors and Ad hoc Communication and Networks (SECON'06),, 3: 920-926, 2006.

H. Yuning, Z. Yongbing, J. Yusheng, S. Xuemin, A New Energy Efficient Approach by Separating Data Collection and Data Report in Wireless Sensor Networks, Proceedings of International Conference on Communication and Mobile Computing (IWCMC'06), 1165-1170, 2006.

H. Chen , S. Megerian, Cluster Sizing and Head Selection for Efficient Data Aggregation and Routing in Sensor Networks, Proceedings of Wireless Communication and Networking (WCNC'06), 4: 2318-2323,2006.

S. Xun, A Combinatorial Algorithmic Approach To Energy Efficient Information Collection In Wireless Sensor Networks, ACM Transactions on Sensor Networks, 3(1), 2007.

A. S. Zahmati, B. Abolhassani, A. A. B. Shirazi, A. S. Bakhtiari, An Energy-Efficient Protocol with Static Clustering for Wireless Sensor Networks, International Journal of Electronics, Circuits and Systems, 3(2): 135-138, 2007.

X. Jianbo, H. Yong, L. I. Renfa, An Energy-Aware Distributed Clustering Algorithm in Wireless Sensor Networks, Proceedings of International Conference on Computer Science and Software Engineering, 528-531, 2008.

G. Xin, W.H. Yang, D. DeGang, EEHCA: An Energy-Efficient clustering Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks, Information Technology Journal, 7(2):245-252, 2008.

Y. Mao, Z. Liu, L. Zhang, X. Li, An Effective Data Gathering Scheme in Heterogeneous Energy Wireless Sensor Networks, Proceedings of International Conference on Computational Science and Engineering , 338-343, 2009.

A. Bari, A. Jaekel, S. Bandyopadhyay, Clustering Strategies for Improving the Lifetime of Two-Tiered Sensor Networks, Elsevier, Computer Communication Journal, 31(14): 3451- 3459, 2008.

C. Song, M. Liu, J. Cao, Y. Zheng et al, Maximizing Network Lifetime Based on Transmission Range Adjustment in Wireless Sensor Networks, Elsevier, Computer Communication Journal, 32(11): 1316-1325, July 2009.

H.Y. Shiue, J.X Lieo-hong, S. Horijuchi, Energy Saving in Wireless Sensor Networks, Journal of Communication and Computing, 6(5):20-28, 2009.

I. Dietrich, F. Dressler, On the Lifetime of Wireless Sensor Networks, ACM Transactions on Sensor Networks , 5(1): 5:1-5:39, 2009.


Copyright (c) 2017 Dilip Kumar, Trilok C. Aseri, R.B. Patel

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

IJCCC is an Open Access Journal : CC-BY-NC.

Articles published in IJCCC user license are protected by copyright.

Users can access, download, copy, translate the IJCCC articles for non-commercial purposes provided that users, but cannot redistribute, display or adapt:

  • Cite the article using an appropriate bibliographic citation: author(s), article title, journal, volume, issue, page numbers, year of publication, DOI, and the link to the definitive published version on IJCCC website;
  • Maintain the integrity of the IJCCC article;
  • Retain the copyright notices and links to these terms and conditions so it is clear to other users what can and what cannot be done with the  article;
  • Ensure that, for any content in the IJCCC article that is identified as belonging to a third party, any re-use complies with the copyright policies of that third party;
  • Any translations must prominently display the statement: "This is an unofficial translation of an article that appeared in IJCCC. Agora University  has not endorsed this translation."

This is a non commercial license where the use of published articles for commercial purposes is forbiden. 

Commercial purposes include: 

  • Copying or downloading IJCCC articles, or linking to such postings, for further redistribution, sale or licensing, for a fee;
  • Copying, downloading or posting by a site or service that incorporates advertising with such content;
  • The inclusion or incorporation of article content in other works or services (other than normal quotations with an appropriate citation) that is then available for sale or licensing, for a fee;
  • Use of IJCCC articles or article content (other than normal quotations with appropriate citation) by for-profit organizations for promotional purposes, whether for a fee or otherwise;
  • Use for the purposes of monetary reward by means of sale, resale, license, loan, transfer or other form of commercial exploitation;

    The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms.

[End of CC-BY-NC  License for Website User]

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMPUTERS COMMUNICATIONS & CONTROL (IJCCC), With Emphasis on the Integration of Three Technologies (C & C & C),  ISSN 1841-9836.

IJCCC was founded in 2006,  at Agora University, by  Ioan DZITAC (Editor-in-Chief),  Florin Gheorghe FILIP (Editor-in-Chief), and  Misu-Jan MANOLESCU (Managing Editor).

Ethics: This journal is a member of, and subscribes to the principles of, the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).

Ioan  DZITAC (Editor-in-Chief) at COPE European Seminar, Bruxelles, 2015:

IJCCC is covered/indexed/abstracted in Science Citation Index Expanded (since vol.1(S),  2006); JCR2018: IF=1.585..

IJCCC is indexed in Scopus from 2008 (CiteScore2018 = 1.56):

Nomination by Elsevier for Journal Excellence Award Romania 2015 (SNIP2014 = 1.029): Elsevier/ Scopus

IJCCC was nominated by Elsevier for Journal Excellence Award - "Scopus Awards Romania 2015" (SNIP2014 = 1.029).

IJCCC is in Top 3 of 157 Romanian journals indexed by Scopus (in all fields) and No.1 in Computer Science field by Elsevier/ Scopus.


 Impact Factor in JCR2018 (Clarivate Analytics/SCI Expanded/ISI Web of Science): IF=1.585 (Q3). Scopus: CiteScore2018=1.56 (Q2);

SCImago Journal & Country Rank

Editors-in-Chief: Ioan DZITAC & Florin Gheorghe FILIP.