Ubiquitous Containerized Cargo Monitoring System Development based on Wireless Sensor Network Technology

Chee-Min Yeoh, Bee-Lie Chai, Hyoteak Lim, Tae-Hong Kwon, Ki-One Yi, Tae-Hun Kim, Chang-Sup Lee, Gwang-Hoon Kwark


Due to globalization, global trade is strongly growing nowadays. The use of containers has significantly increased and bringing the change on the shape of the world economy. Thus, monitoring every single container is a big challenge for port industries. Furthermore, rapid development in embedded computing systems has led to the emergence of Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) technology which enabled us to envision the intelligent containers. This represents the next evolutionary development in logistics industry to increase the efficiency, productivity, security of containerized cargo shipping. In this paper, we present a comprehensive containerized cargo monitoring system based on WSNs. We incorporated tilt/motion sensor to improve the network convergence time of container networks. Moreover, we periodically switch the nodes into sleeping mode to save energy and extend the lifetime of the network. Based on the technical implementation on a real container vessel, we strongly believed that our design which employed WSN technology is viable to be implemented in container logistics to improve port services and provide safe transport of containerized cargo.


Containerized cargo monitoring, sensor node, WSN, Low Power Listening

Full Text:



M. Levinson, The Box: How the Shipping Container Made the World Smaller and the World Economy Bigger, Princeton University Press, 2006

Container throughput in the world-wide most important container ports, http://www. hafen-hamburg.de/content/view/33/33/lang,en/

Chlomoudis, C.I. and Pallis, A.A., Port Governance and the Smart Port Authority: Key Issues for the Reinforcement of Quality Services in European Ports, Proc. of the 10th World Conference on Transport Research, (CDRom), Istanbul, June, 2004

Busan Regional Maritime Affaire and Port Office: http://www.portbusan.go.kr/Service. do?id=en_sub4-1,

CSI in Brief: http://www.cbp.gov/xp/cgov/trade/cargo_security/csi/csi_in_brief. xml

C-TPAT: Customs-Trade Partnership Against Terrorism: http://www.cbp.gov/xp/cgov/ trade/cargo_security/ctpat

A. Mainwaring, J. Polastre, R. Szewczyk, D. Culler, J. Anderson, Wireless sensor networks for habitat monitoring, ACM Int. Workshop on Wireless Sensor Networks and Applications (WSNA'02), Atlanta, GA, September 2002.

IEEE 802.15.4 WPAN-LR Task Group: http://www.ieee802.org/15/pub/TG4.html

TelosB Datasheet: http://www.xbow.com/Products/Product_pdf_files/Wireless_pdf/ TelosB_Datasheet.pdf

MicaZ Datasheet: http://www.xbow.com/Products/Product_pdf_files/Wireless_pdf/ MICAz_Datasheet.pdf

TinyOS: http://www.tinyos.net/

Tilt Switch: http://www.das-co.com/bbs_form/Fckeditor/upload/TILT_SW_TS3.pdf

Scalable Network Technologies. Qualnet: http://www.scalable-networks.com

El-Hoiydi A, Aloha with preamble sampling for sporadic traffic in ad-hoc wireless sensor networks, Proc. of IEEE Int. Conference on Communications, NY, USA, 5:3418-3423, 2002

M. Stemm and R. H. Katz, Measuring and reducing energy consumption of network interfaces in hand-held devices, IEICE Trans. on Communications, E80-B(8): 1125-1131, 1997.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.15837/ijccc.2011.4.2109

Copyright (c) 2017 Chee-Min Yeoh, Bee-Lie Chai, Hyoteak Lim, Tae-Hong Kwon, Ki-One Yi, Tae-Hun Kim, Chang-Sup Lee, Gwang-Hoon Kwark

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

CC-BY-NC  License for Website User

Articles published in IJCCC user license are protected by copyright.

Users can access, download, copy, translate the IJCCC articles for non-commercial purposes provided that users, but cannot redistribute, display or adapt:

  • Cite the article using an appropriate bibliographic citation: author(s), article title, journal, volume, issue, page numbers, year of publication, DOI, and the link to the definitive published version on IJCCC website;
  • Maintain the integrity of the IJCCC article;
  • Retain the copyright notices and links to these terms and conditions so it is clear to other users what can and what cannot be done with the  article;
  • Ensure that, for any content in the IJCCC article that is identified as belonging to a third party, any re-use complies with the copyright policies of that third party;
  • Any translations must prominently display the statement: "This is an unofficial translation of an article that appeared in IJCCC. Agora University  has not endorsed this translation."

This is a non commercial license where the use of published articles for commercial purposes is forbiden. 

Commercial purposes include: 

  • Copying or downloading IJCCC articles, or linking to such postings, for further redistribution, sale or licensing, for a fee;
  • Copying, downloading or posting by a site or service that incorporates advertising with such content;
  • The inclusion or incorporation of article content in other works or services (other than normal quotations with an appropriate citation) that is then available for sale or licensing, for a fee;
  • Use of IJCCC articles or article content (other than normal quotations with appropriate citation) by for-profit organizations for promotional purposes, whether for a fee or otherwise;
  • Use for the purposes of monetary reward by means of sale, resale, license, loan, transfer or other form of commercial exploitation;

    The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms.

[End of CC-BY-NC  License for Website User]

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMPUTERS COMMUNICATIONS & CONTROL (IJCCC), With Emphasis on the Integration of Three Technologies (C & C & C),  ISSN 1841-9836.

IJCCC was founded in 2006,  at Agora University, by  Ioan DZITAC (Editor-in-Chief),  Florin Gheorghe FILIP (Editor-in-Chief), and  Misu-Jan MANOLESCU (Managing Editor).

Ethics: This journal is a member of, and subscribes to the principles of, the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).

Ioan  DZITAC (Editor-in-Chief) at COPE European Seminar, Bruxelles, 2015:

IJCCC is covered/indexed/abstracted in Science Citation Index Expanded (since vol.1(S),  2006); JCR2018: IF=1.585..

IJCCC is indexed in Scopus from 2008 (CiteScore2018 = 1.56):

Nomination by Elsevier for Journal Excellence Award Romania 2015 (SNIP2014 = 1.029): Elsevier/ Scopus

IJCCC was nominated by Elsevier for Journal Excellence Award - "Scopus Awards Romania 2015" (SNIP2014 = 1.029).

IJCCC is in Top 3 of 157 Romanian journals indexed by Scopus (in all fields) and No.1 in Computer Science field by Elsevier/ Scopus.


 Impact Factor in JCR2018 (Clarivate Analytics/SCI Expanded/ISI Web of Science): IF=1.585 (Q3). Scopus: CiteScore2018=1.56 (Q2);

SCImago Journal & Country Rank

Editors-in-Chief: Ioan DZITAC & Florin Gheorghe FILIP.