Energy Synchronized Transmission Control for Energy-harvesting Sensor Networks

Zuzhi Fan, Xiaoli Liu


Energy harvesting and recharging techniques have been regarded as a promising solution to ensure sustained operations of wireless sensor networks for longterm applications. To deal with the diversity of energy harvesting and constrained energy storage capability, sensor nodes in such applications usually work in a duty-cycled mode. Consequently, the sleep latency brought by duty-cycled operation is becoming the main challenge. In this work, we study the energy synchronization control problem for such sustainable sensor networks. Intuitively, energy-rich nodes can increase their transmission power in order to improve network performance, while energy-poor nodes can lower transmission power to conserve its precious energy resource. In particular, we propose an energy synchronized transmission control scheme (ESTC) by which each node adaptively selects suitable power levels and data forwarders according to its available energy and traffic load. Based on the large-scale simulations, we validate that our design can improve system performance under different network settings comparing with common uniform transmission power control strategy. Specially, ESTC can enable the perpetual operations of nodes without sacrificing the network lifetime.


Wireless sensor networks; Energy harvest; Transmission control

Full Text:



M. Li et al (2009), Canopy Closure Estimates with GreenOrbs: Sustainable Sensing in the Forest, ACM Sensys, Proceedings of the 7th ACM Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems, 99-112.

V. Dyo et al (2010), Evolution and Sustainability of a Wildlife Monitoring Sensor Network, ACM Sensys, Proceedings of the 8th ACM Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems, 127-140.

Vigorito, Christopher M et al (2007), Adaptive control of duty cycling in energy-harvesting wireless sensor networks, IEEE SECON, 21-30.

ST Guo et al (2013), Mobile data gathering with wireless energy replenishment in rechargeable sensor networks, IEEE Infocom, 1932-1940.

Berbakov, Lazar et al (2014), Joint optimization of transmission policies for collaborative beamforming with energy harvesting sensors, IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, 13(7):3496-3509.

Cheng, Maggie X., et al. (2011); Cross-layer throughput optimization with power control in sensor networks, IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 60(7): 3300-3308.

D. J. Vergados et al (2008), Energy-Efficient Route Selection Strategies for Wireless Sensor Networks, Mobile Network and Applications, 12:285-296.

T. Zhu et al (2009), Leakage-Aware Energy Synchronization for Wireless Sensor Networks, MobiSys09, Proceedings of the 7th international conference on Mobile systems, applications, and services, 319-332.

G.W. Challen et al (2010), IDEA: Integrated Distributed Energy Awareness for Wireless Sensor Networks, MobiSys10, Proceedings of the 8th international conference on Mobile systems, applications, and services, 35-48.

Y. Gu et al (2014), Achieving energy-synchronized communication in energy-harvesting wireless sensor networks, ACM Transactions on Embedded Computing Systems (TECS), 13(2s):68.

A. Kansal et al (2007), Power management in energy harvesting sensor networks, ACM Transactions on Embedded Computing Systems, 6(4):32.

F. Liu et al (2010), Joint routing and sleep scheduling for lifetime maximization of wireless sensor networks, IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, 9(7):2258–2267.

R. Wattenhofer et al (2001), Distributed Topology Control for Power Efficient Operation in Multihop Wireless Ad Hoc Networks, INFOCOM 2001. Twentieth Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies. Proceedings. IEEE, 3: 1388-1397.

Cotuk H, Bicakci K, Tavli B, et al. (2014); The impact of transmission power control strategies on lifetime of wireless sensor networks, IEEE Transactions on Computers, 63(11): 2866- 2879.

Z. Fan et al (2015), Delay-Bounded Transmission Power Control for Low-Duty-Cycle Sensor Networks, IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, 14(6):3157–3170.

Renner, Christian et al (2014), Online energy assessment with supercapacitors and energy harvesters, Sustainable Computing: Informatics and Systems, 4(1):10–23.

Y. Gu and T. He (2010), Bounding Communication Delay in Energy Harvesting Sensor Networks, Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS), 2010 IEEE 30th International Conference on, 837-847.

D. S. J. D. Couto et al (2003), A HighThroughput Path Metric for MultiHop Wireless Routing, MobiCom 03, Proceedings of the 9th annual international conference on Mobile computing and networking, 136-146.

G. Lu et al (2005), Delay Efficient Sleep Scheduling in Wireless Sensor Networks, INFOCOM 2005. 24th Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies. Proceedings IEEE, 4: 2470-2481.

S. Lin et al (2006), ATPC: Adaptive transmission power control for wireless sensor networks, SenSys06, Proceedings of the 4th international conference on Embedded networked sensor systems, 223-236 .

Z. Fan (2013), Delay-Driven Routing for Low-Duty-Cycle Sensor Networks, International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks, Volume 2013, Article198283, 11 pages,

S. Singh et al (1998), Power-Aware Routing in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks, Mobile Computing and Networking, DOI:10.1145/288235.288286, 181–190.


Copyright (c) 2017 Zuzhi Fan, Xiaoli Liu

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

IJCCC is an Open Access Journal : CC-BY-NC.

Articles published in IJCCC user license are protected by copyright.

Users can access, download, copy, translate the IJCCC articles for non-commercial purposes provided that users, but cannot redistribute, display or adapt:

  • Cite the article using an appropriate bibliographic citation: author(s), article title, journal, volume, issue, page numbers, year of publication, DOI, and the link to the definitive published version on IJCCC website;
  • Maintain the integrity of the IJCCC article;
  • Retain the copyright notices and links to these terms and conditions so it is clear to other users what can and what cannot be done with the  article;
  • Ensure that, for any content in the IJCCC article that is identified as belonging to a third party, any re-use complies with the copyright policies of that third party;
  • Any translations must prominently display the statement: "This is an unofficial translation of an article that appeared in IJCCC. Agora University  has not endorsed this translation."

This is a non commercial license where the use of published articles for commercial purposes is forbiden. 

Commercial purposes include: 

  • Copying or downloading IJCCC articles, or linking to such postings, for further redistribution, sale or licensing, for a fee;
  • Copying, downloading or posting by a site or service that incorporates advertising with such content;
  • The inclusion or incorporation of article content in other works or services (other than normal quotations with an appropriate citation) that is then available for sale or licensing, for a fee;
  • Use of IJCCC articles or article content (other than normal quotations with appropriate citation) by for-profit organizations for promotional purposes, whether for a fee or otherwise;
  • Use for the purposes of monetary reward by means of sale, resale, license, loan, transfer or other form of commercial exploitation;

    The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms.

[End of CC-BY-NC  License for Website User]

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMPUTERS COMMUNICATIONS & CONTROL (IJCCC), With Emphasis on the Integration of Three Technologies (C & C & C),  ISSN 1841-9836.

IJCCC was founded in 2006,  at Agora University, by  Ioan DZITAC (Editor-in-Chief),  Florin Gheorghe FILIP (Editor-in-Chief), and  Misu-Jan MANOLESCU (Managing Editor).

Ethics: This journal is a member of, and subscribes to the principles of, the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).

Ioan  DZITAC (Editor-in-Chief) at COPE European Seminar, Bruxelles, 2015:

IJCCC is covered/indexed/abstracted in Science Citation Index Expanded (since vol.1(S),  2006); JCR2018: IF=1.585..

IJCCC is indexed in Scopus from 2008 (CiteScore2018 = 1.56):

Nomination by Elsevier for Journal Excellence Award Romania 2015 (SNIP2014 = 1.029): Elsevier/ Scopus

IJCCC was nominated by Elsevier for Journal Excellence Award - "Scopus Awards Romania 2015" (SNIP2014 = 1.029).

IJCCC is in Top 3 of 157 Romanian journals indexed by Scopus (in all fields) and No.1 in Computer Science field by Elsevier/ Scopus.


 Impact Factor in JCR2018 (Clarivate Analytics/SCI Expanded/ISI Web of Science): IF=1.585 (Q3). Scopus: CiteScore2018=1.56 (Q2);

SCImago Journal & Country Rank

Editors-in-Chief: Ioan DZITAC & Florin Gheorghe FILIP.