Robust Face Recognition Against Soft-errors Using a Cross-layer Approach

Gu-Min Jeong, Chang-Woo Park, Sang-Il Choi, Kyoungwoo Lee, Nikil Dutt


Recently, soft-errors, temporary bit toggles in memory systems, have become increasingly important. Although soft-errors are not critical to the stability of recognition systems or multimedia systems, they can significantly degrade the system performance. Considering these facts, in this paper, we propose a novel method for robust face recognition against soft-errors using a cross layer approach. To attenuate the effect of soft-errors in the face recognition system, they are detected in the embedded system layer by using a parity bit checker and compensated in the application layer by using a mean face. We present the soft-error detection module for face recognition and the compensation module based on the mean face of the facial images. Simulation results show that the proposed system effectively compensates for the performance degradation due to soft errors and improves the performance by 2.11 % in case of the Yale database and by 10.43 % in case of the ORL database on average as compared to that with the soft-errors induced.


Soft-error, Face recognition, Cross-layer approach, Mean face

Full Text:



Baumann, Robert (2005); Soft errors in advanced computer systems, Design & Test of Computers, ISSN 0740-7475, 22(3): 258-266.

Lyons, D. (2000), Sun Screen: Soft Error Issue in Sun Enterprise Servers,

Sarah E. Michalak et al. (2005); Predicting the number of fatal soft errors in los alamos national laboratory's ASC Q supercomputer. IEEE Transactions on Device and Materials Reliability, ISSN 1530-4388 5(3): 329-335.

Marc Tremblay, Yuval Tami. (1989); Support for fault tolerance in VLSI processors, IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, 1: 388-392.

Borodin, Demid, Ben HH Juurlink. (2010); Instruction precomputation with memoization for fault detection, Proceedings of the Conference on Design, Automation and Test in Europe, ISBN 978-3-9810801-6-2, 1665-1668.

Lee, Kyoungwoo, et al. (2006) Mitigating soft error failures for multimedia applications by selective data protection. Proceedings of the 2006 international conference on Compilers, architecture and synthesis for embedded systems, ISBN: 1-59593-543-6, 411-420.

Nakka, Nithin, Karthik Pattabiraman, and Ravishankar Iyer. (2007); Processor-Level Selective Replication. Proceedings of the 37th Annual IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks, ISBN 0-7695-2855-4, 544-553.

Lee, Kyoungwoo, et al. (2007); Partially protected caches to reduce failures due to soft errors in multimedia applications. IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Systems, ISSN 1063-8210, 17(9): 1343-1347.

Vera, Xavier, et al. (2009); Selective replication: A lightweight technique for soft errors. ACM Transactions on Computer Systems, ISSN 0734-2071, 27(4), DOI: 10.1145/1658357.1658359.

Lee, Kyoungwoo, et al. (2008); Mitigating the impact of hardware defects on multimedia applications: a cross-layer approach. Proceedings of the 16th ACM international conference on Multimedia, ISBN: 978-1-60558-303-7, 319-328.

Lu, Juwei et al. (2003); Regularized discriminant analysis for the small sample size problem in face recognition. Pattern Recognition Letters, ISSN 0167-8655, 24(16): 3079 - 3087.

Lu, Juwei, Konstantinos N. Plataniotis, and Anastasios N. (2005); Regularization studies of linear discriminant analysis in small sample size scenarios with application to face recognition. Pattern Recognition Letters, ISSN 0167-8655, 26(2): 181-191.

Center for Computational Vision and Control, Yale University, The Yale Face Database,

AT&T Laboratories Cambridge. The ORL database of faces,

Lu, Juwei, Kostantinos N. Plataniotis, and Anastasios N. (2003); Face recognition using LDA-based algorithms, Neural Networks, ISSN 1045-9227, 14(1): 195 - 200.

Turk, Matthew, and Alex Pentland. (1991); Eigenfaces for recognition, Journal of cognitive neuroscience, ISSN 0898-929X, 3(1): 71-86.

Andrew R. Webb (eds.)(2002); Statistical Pattern Recognition, 2ndnd ed, Wiley, ISBN: 978- 0-470-85478-5.

Choi, Sang-Il, Chong-Ho Choi, and Nojun Kwak. (2011); Face recognition based on 2D images under illumination and pose variations, Pattern Recognition Letters, ISSN 0167-8655, 32(4): 561-571.

Choi, Sang-Il, and Gu-Min Jeong. (2011); Shadow compensation using fourier analysis with application to face recognition, IEEE Signal Processing Letters, ISSN 1070-9908, 18(1): 23-26.


Copyright (c) 2017 Gu-Min Jeong, Chang-Woo Park, Sang-Il Choi, Kyoungwoo Lee, Nikil Dutt

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

CC-BY-NC  License for Website User

Articles published in IJCCC user license are protected by copyright.

Users can access, download, copy, translate the IJCCC articles for non-commercial purposes provided that users, but cannot redistribute, display or adapt:

  • Cite the article using an appropriate bibliographic citation: author(s), article title, journal, volume, issue, page numbers, year of publication, DOI, and the link to the definitive published version on IJCCC website;
  • Maintain the integrity of the IJCCC article;
  • Retain the copyright notices and links to these terms and conditions so it is clear to other users what can and what cannot be done with the  article;
  • Ensure that, for any content in the IJCCC article that is identified as belonging to a third party, any re-use complies with the copyright policies of that third party;
  • Any translations must prominently display the statement: "This is an unofficial translation of an article that appeared in IJCCC. Agora University  has not endorsed this translation."

This is a non commercial license where the use of published articles for commercial purposes is forbiden. 

Commercial purposes include: 

  • Copying or downloading IJCCC articles, or linking to such postings, for further redistribution, sale or licensing, for a fee;
  • Copying, downloading or posting by a site or service that incorporates advertising with such content;
  • The inclusion or incorporation of article content in other works or services (other than normal quotations with an appropriate citation) that is then available for sale or licensing, for a fee;
  • Use of IJCCC articles or article content (other than normal quotations with appropriate citation) by for-profit organizations for promotional purposes, whether for a fee or otherwise;
  • Use for the purposes of monetary reward by means of sale, resale, license, loan, transfer or other form of commercial exploitation;

    The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms.

[End of CC-BY-NC  License for Website User]

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMPUTERS COMMUNICATIONS & CONTROL (IJCCC), With Emphasis on the Integration of Three Technologies (C & C & C),  ISSN 1841-9836.

IJCCC was founded in 2006,  at Agora University, by  Ioan DZITAC (Editor-in-Chief),  Florin Gheorghe FILIP (Editor-in-Chief), and  Misu-Jan MANOLESCU (Managing Editor).

Ethics: This journal is a member of, and subscribes to the principles of, the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).

Ioan  DZITAC (Editor-in-Chief) at COPE European Seminar, Bruxelles, 2015:

IJCCC is covered/indexed/abstracted in Science Citation Index Expanded (since vol.1(S),  2006); JCR2018: IF=1.585..

IJCCC is indexed in Scopus from 2008 (CiteScore2018 = 1.56):

Nomination by Elsevier for Journal Excellence Award Romania 2015 (SNIP2014 = 1.029): Elsevier/ Scopus

IJCCC was nominated by Elsevier for Journal Excellence Award - "Scopus Awards Romania 2015" (SNIP2014 = 1.029).

IJCCC is in Top 3 of 157 Romanian journals indexed by Scopus (in all fields) and No.1 in Computer Science field by Elsevier/ Scopus.


 Impact Factor in JCR2018 (Clarivate Analytics/SCI Expanded/ISI Web of Science): IF=1.585 (Q3). Scopus: CiteScore2018=1.56 (Q2);

SCImago Journal & Country Rank

Editors-in-Chief: Ioan DZITAC & Florin Gheorghe FILIP.