Homeostatic Control of Sustainable Energy Grid Applied to Natural Disasters

Felisa M. Cordova, Franco F. Yanine

Abstract


According to seismologists Chile has yet to face another big earthquake in the very near future, yet the country remains largely unprepared against massive electric power systems brake-down. The problem lies in the centralized electric power systems and the lack of adequate technologies and back-up/emergency power systems for disas- ter recovery. The flaws that are built into the very fabric of the presently centralized power systems were on full display in the February 27th earthquake in Chile. Nowhere it becomes more evident that hugely centralized power generation and distribution systems are extremely vulnerable and ineffective to disruptions from natural disasters, human error or other calamities. The large power networks that once proved very efficient and secure, are now at the center of discussion fueling the need for decentral- ization and the rapid growth of distributed generation (DG). Highly decentralized, diversified and DG-oriented energy matrix is notoriously much better suited to with- stand these disasters. In centralized electric power grids, servicing large metropolitan areas, albeit with some but limited differentiation in service, can only be on or off, so either everyone gets power or no one does. This makes recovering power service in an emergency situation a much more difficult task. On the other hand, decentralized power systems (DPS) reduce the obstacles to disaster preparation and recovery by allowing the focus to shift first to critical infrastructure and then to flow outward to less integrated outlets. A DG-based model for a smart micro-grid based on hybrid electric power systems (HEPS) using both renewable energy technologies (RET) and conventional power generation units is presented. The hybrid energy system may be portable or fixed in one place, highly reliable, easy to assemble, modular, flexible and cost-effective solution, that is ready-to-run and go to where it is needed to supply power in natural disaster.


Keywords


natural disasters, energy sustainability, smart micro-grid, hybrid electric power systems, sustainable blocks, sustainable energy strategy.

Full Text:

PDF

References


R. H. Lasseter and P. Piagi, Control and Design of Microgrid Components: Final Project Report, PSERC Publication 0603, Jan. 2006.

S. Hozumi, Development of hybrid solar systems using solar thermal, photovoltaics, and wind energy, Int. J. Solar Energy, 4(5):257-280, 1986.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01425918608909863

F. Giraud and Z. M. Salameh, Steady-state performance of a grid-connected rooftop hybrid wind-photovoltaic power system with battery storage, IEEE Trans. Energy Convers., vol. 16(1):1-7, Mar. 2001.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/60.911395

Zhou Xue-song; Gu Yue; Ma You-jie; Research on technology of smart grid, (Tianjin Key Lab. for Control Theor. & Applic. in Complicated Syst., Tianjin Univ. of Technol., Tianjin, China.). International Conference on Intelligent Computing and Intelligent Systems (ICIS), 2010 IEEE 29-31 Oct. 2010; pp 698 - 701.

M. Amin, North America's Electricity Infrastructure: Are We Ready for More Perfect Storms?, IEEE Security and Privacy Magazine, 1(5):19-25, Sept./October 2003.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/MSECP.2003.1236231

M. Amin, Toward Self-Healing Energy Infrastructure Systems, IEEE Computer Applications in Power, 14(1):20-28, January 2001.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/67.893351

M. Amin and B.F. Wollenberg, Toward a Smart Grid: Power Delivery for the 21st century, IEEE Power and Energy Magazine, 3(5):34-41, Sept/Oct. 2005.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/MPAE.2005.1507024

M. Amin and P. F. Schewe, Preventing Blackouts, Scientific American, pp. 60-67, May 2007.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/scientificamerican0507-60

Afzala, Anis, Mohibullah, Mohibullaha & Kumar Sharmab, Virendra, OPTIMAL HY- BRID RENEWABLE ENERGY SYSTEMS FOR ENERGY SECURITY: A COMPARA- TIVE STUDY, International Journal of Sustainable Energy, Volume 29, Issue 1, 2010 (avail- able at Taylor Francis Online and EBSCO).

Hedman, B., Combined Heat and Power and Heat Recovery as Energy Efficiency Options, Presentation on behalf of US CHP Association and ICF Consulting, Washington, DC, 2007.

Japan Gas Association, Technology Development and Commercialization, presentation at IEA CHP / DHC Collaborative Policy Makers, Roundtable, Paris, 2007.

Testa, A. De Caro, S. La Torre, R. Scimone, T., Optimal design of energy storage systems for stand-alone hybrid wind/PV generators, IEEE Xplore Digital Library: SPEEDAM 2010 International Symposium on Power Electronics, Electrical Drives, Automation and Motion, 2010.

Guerrero, M. A., Romero, E., Barrero, F., Milanos, M. I., Gonzalez, E., Overview of Medium Scale Energy Storage Systems, Power Electronics & Electric Systems (PE&ES), School of Industrial Engineering (University of Extremadura); Power Quality, Alternative Energy and Distributed Systems Journal Compatibility and Power Electronics Cpe 2009, 6th International Conference-Workshop, 2009.

Wei Li; Joos, G., Comparison of Energy Storage System Technologies and Configurations in a Wind Farm, McGill Univ., Quebec Power Electronics Specialists Conference, IEEE, Date: 17-21 June 2007, pp. 1280 - 1285, 2007.

Sels, T., Dragu, C., Van Craenenbroeck, T., Belmans, R., Overview of new energy storage systems for an improved power quality and load managing on distribution level, IEEE Xplore Digital Library, International Conference on Electricity Distribution, CIRED, 2002.

Steven C. Smith, P. K. Sen, Benjamin Kroposki & Keith Malmedal; Renewable energy and energy storage systems in rural electrical power systems: Issues, challenges and application guidelines, Rural Electric Power Conference (REPC), 2010 IEEE, pp. B4 - B4-7, 2010.

DeCoster, Dennis, A State of the Art Review of Energy Storage Alternatives for Mission Critical UPS & CPS Power Systems; (Dennis DeCoster is Executive Principal, Mission Critical West Incorporated). Source: Oct/05 proceedings of 2005 Power Quality Conference http://www.mcwestinc.com/Resources.htm

Schainker, Robert B.Executive Overview: Energy Storage Options For A Sustainable Energy Future, IEEE Xplore Digital Library: Power Engineering Society General Meeting, IEEE, 2:2309 - 2314, 2004.

Johnson, R.W, Aspnes, R.A.; Wies, J., Design of an energy-efficient standalone distributed generation system employing renewable energy sources and smart grid technology as a student design project, Power and Energy Society General Meeting, 2010 IEEE, Date: 25-29 July 2010, pp. 1 - 8 Location: Minneapolis, MN., 2010.

Nema, Pragya, Nema, R.K., Rangnekar, Saroj, A current and future state of art development of hybrid energy system using wind and PV-solar: A review, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 13(8):2096-2103, 2009.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2008.10.006

Deshmukh, M.K. and Deshmukh, S.S., Modeling of Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 12(1):235-249, January 2008.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2006.07.011

Lim, P. Y., Nayar, C. V., Rajakaruna, S., Simulation and Components Sizing of a Stand- Alone Hybrid Power System with Variable Speed Generator, IEEE Xplore Digital Library: Environment and Electrical Engineering (EEEIC), 2010 9th International Conference on, pp. 465-468, May 2010.

Gupta, A.; Saini, R.P.; Sharma, M.P., Modeling of Hybrid Energy System for Off Grid Electrification of Clusters of Villages, IEEE Xplore: Digital Library Power Electronics, Drives and Energy Systems, 2006. International Conference on, Date: 12-15 Dec. 2006.

Vechiu I., Camblong H., Tapia G., Dakyo B., Nichita C., Dynamic Simulation Model of a Hybrid Power System: Performance Analysis, European Wind Energy Conference Proceed- ings, London, 2004.

Chen, Fengzhen, Duic, Neven, Alves, Luis Manuel, da Grac-a Carvalho, Maria, Renewislands-Renewable energy solutions for islands, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Re- views, 11:1888-1902, 2007.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2005.12.009

Moriana, I., San Martin, I., Sanchis, P., Wind-Photovoltaic Hybrid Systems Design, IEEE Xplore Power Electronics Electrical Drives Automation and Motion (SPEEDAM), 2010 In- ternational Symposium, pp. 610 - 615, 2010.

Chun-Hua Li, Xin-Jian Zhu, Guang-Yi Cao, Sheng Sui, Ming-Ruo Hu; Dynamic modeling and sizing optimization of stand-alone photovoltaic power systems using hybrid energy storage technology, Renewable Energy, 34(3):815-826, March 2009.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2008.04.018

Ipsakis, Dimitris, Voutetakis, Spyros Seferlis, Panos, Stergiopoulos, Fotis; Papadopoulou, Simira, Elmasides, Costas Keivanidis, Chrysovalantis, Energy Management in a Stand-Alone Power System for the Production of Electrical Energy with Long Term Hydrogen Storage, 18th European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering ESCAPE 18 Bertrand Braunschweig and Xavier Joulia (Editors), Elsevier B.V., 2008.

Tajuelo Gallego, Jesus Angel, Estudio Tecnico-Economico de una Instalacion Fotovoltaica con Baterias y Tanques de Hidrogeno, Memoria de Titulo (not yet published), Director: Javier Contreras Sanz UNIVERSIDAD DE CASTILLA - LA MANCHA, CIUDAD REAL, Espana, 2011.

International Energy Agency http://www.iea.org/

The Millennium Project The OECD and the Millennium Development Goals, OECD Devel- opment Co-operation Directorate website, (retrieved 11 June 2011). The Millennium Institute http://www.millennium-institute.org/

M.S. Labini, G. Delvecchio, M. Guerra, C. Lofrumento, F. Neri, A study for optimizing the management strategies of a hybrid photovoltaic-diesel power generation system, Proceed- ings of INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON RENEWABLE ENERGIES AND POWER QUALITY (ICREPQ), Barcelona, 2004.

Yaow-Ming Chen, Chung-Sheng Cheng, Hsu-Chin Wu, Grid-connected hybrid PV/wind power generation system with improved DC bus voltage regulation strategy, GApplied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, APEC 2006, Twenty-First Annual IEEE, 2006.

Ding J.J., Buckeridge J.S. Design considerations for a sustainable hybrid energy system, UNITECH Institue of Technology-IPENZ Transactions, 27(1):1-5, Auckland, 2000.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.15837/ijccc.2013.1.168



Copyright (c) 2017 Felisa M. Cordova, Franco F. Yanine

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

CC-BY-NC  License for Website User

Articles published in IJCCC user license are protected by copyright.

Users can access, download, copy, translate the IJCCC articles for non-commercial purposes provided that users, but cannot redistribute, display or adapt:

  • Cite the article using an appropriate bibliographic citation: author(s), article title, journal, volume, issue, page numbers, year of publication, DOI, and the link to the definitive published version on IJCCC website;
  • Maintain the integrity of the IJCCC article;
  • Retain the copyright notices and links to these terms and conditions so it is clear to other users what can and what cannot be done with the  article;
  • Ensure that, for any content in the IJCCC article that is identified as belonging to a third party, any re-use complies with the copyright policies of that third party;
  • Any translations must prominently display the statement: "This is an unofficial translation of an article that appeared in IJCCC. Agora University  has not endorsed this translation."

This is a non commercial license where the use of published articles for commercial purposes is forbiden. 

Commercial purposes include: 

  • Copying or downloading IJCCC articles, or linking to such postings, for further redistribution, sale or licensing, for a fee;
  • Copying, downloading or posting by a site or service that incorporates advertising with such content;
  • The inclusion or incorporation of article content in other works or services (other than normal quotations with an appropriate citation) that is then available for sale or licensing, for a fee;
  • Use of IJCCC articles or article content (other than normal quotations with appropriate citation) by for-profit organizations for promotional purposes, whether for a fee or otherwise;
  • Use for the purposes of monetary reward by means of sale, resale, license, loan, transfer or other form of commercial exploitation;

    The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms.

[End of CC-BY-NC  License for Website User]


INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMPUTERS COMMUNICATIONS & CONTROL (IJCCC), With Emphasis on the Integration of Three Technologies (C & C & C),  ISSN 1841-9836.

IJCCC was founded in 2006,  at Agora University, by  Ioan DZITAC (Editor-in-Chief),  Florin Gheorghe FILIP (Editor-in-Chief), and  Misu-Jan MANOLESCU (Managing Editor).

Ethics: This journal is a member of, and subscribes to the principles of, the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).

Ioan  DZITAC (Editor-in-Chief) at COPE European Seminar, Bruxelles, 2015:

IJCCC is covered/indexed/abstracted in Science Citation Index Expanded (since vol.1(S),  2006); JCR2018: IF=1.585..

IJCCC is indexed in Scopus from 2008 (CiteScore2018 = 1.56):

Nomination by Elsevier for Journal Excellence Award Romania 2015 (SNIP2014 = 1.029): Elsevier/ Scopus

IJCCC was nominated by Elsevier for Journal Excellence Award - "Scopus Awards Romania 2015" (SNIP2014 = 1.029).

IJCCC is in Top 3 of 157 Romanian journals indexed by Scopus (in all fields) and No.1 in Computer Science field by Elsevier/ Scopus.

 

 Impact Factor in JCR2018 (Clarivate Analytics/SCI Expanded/ISI Web of Science): IF=1.585 (Q3). Scopus: CiteScore2018=1.56 (Q2);

SCImago Journal & Country Rank

Editors-in-Chief: Ioan DZITAC & Florin Gheorghe FILIP.