Optimization of Vertical Handoff Decision Algorithm for Wireless Networks

Elias Aruna, R.S. Moni


To provide mobile users with seamless access anywhere and anytime there is a strong need forinterworking mechanism between cellular networks and wireless local area networks in the next generation wirelessnetworks. Due to the heterogeneous underlying Quality of Service (QoS) support, the admission traffic in these areashas significant impact on overall resource utilization efficiency and QoS satisfaction when multiple services areconsidered. This paper addresses a Call-Level quality of Service (CLS) vertical handoff algorithm between WLANand cellular networks for seamless ubiquitous access. The CLS involves call blocking/dropping probabilities, meandata transfer rate, and number of handoff per call. Based on the above proposed admission strategy, the admissionregion of a cell or WLAN for the traffic can be derived with the function of new call arrival rate, handoff callarrival rate, and the radius of WLANs. The blocking and dropping probabilities are calculated under the guardchanneladmission strategy. The radius of WLAN is determined by using Simulated Annealing (SA) method to minimizethe cost function. Moreover, handoff traffic should be differentiated from new traffic in terms of call admission. When a Mobile Node (MN) moves from an area, with only cellular coverage to an overlaid WLAN area, theongoing call of the MN should be handed over to the WLAN, and handoff from WLAN to cellular network if theyleave the scope. The results based on a detailed performance evaluation study are presented here to demonstrate theefficacy of the proposed algorithm.


heterogeneous wireless networks, vertical handoff, seamless mobility, integration handover

Full Text:



K.Maheswary and A.Kumar, Performance analysis of microcellization for supporting two mobility classes in cellular wireless networks, IEEE Trans.Veh. Technolog, 49(2):321-333, 2000

T.Klein and S.J.Han,Assignment Strategies for mobile data users in hierarchical overlay networks: Performance of Optimal and adaptive strategies, IEEE Int J. of select. Areas. Commun., 22(5):849-861, June 2004.

J.Ncnair, and F.Zhu, Vertical handoff in 4G multi network environments, IEEE Wireless Communications, 11(3):8-15, 2005

N.Nasser, A.Hasswa and H.Hassanein, Handoff in 4G heterogeneous networks, IEEE communication magazine, 44(10):96-103, 2006

E.Arun, R.S.Moni, A novel decision scheme for vertical handoff in 4Gwireless networks, Global Journal of Computer Science and Technology, 10(5):28-33, 2010

A.H.Zahran, B.Liang, and A.Aaleh,Signal threshold Adaptation for vertical handoff in Heterogeneous wireless networks, vMobile Network Applications, 11:625-640, 2006

E.Steven, S.Navarro, V.W.S.Wong, and Y.X.Lin, A vertical handoff decision algorithm for Heterogeneous wireless networks, Wireless Communication and networking Conferrence, pp. 3199-3204, 2007

E.Arun, R.S.Moni, Optimization algorithm for a handoff decision in wireless heterogeneous networks, International Journal of Next-Generation Networks (IJNGN), 2(3):99-117, 2010

W.Song and W.Zhuang, QoS provisioning via admission control in cellular/wireless networking, in Proc. 2nd Intl conf. on Broadband Networks (BROADNETS'05), 1:585-593, 2005

P.K.Tang, Y.H.Chew and L.C.O.Michael, Improvement in Grade-of-service in a cooperative overlaying heterogeneous networks, 6th Int conf. on Information Communication and Signal Processing, pp. 1-5, 2007

B.Jabbari, Teletraffic aspects of evolving and next generation wireless communication networks, IEEE Pers. Comm., 3(6):4-9, 1996

Q.A.zeng and D.P.Agerwal, Modeling and efficient handling of handoff in Integrated Wireless Mobile Networking, IEEE Trans. on Veh. Tech., 51(6):1469-1478, 2002

I.Akyildiz and W.wong, A dynamic location management scheme for next generation multityre PCS systems, IEEE Trans. on wireless communications, 1(1):178-189, 2002

D.Hong, and S.S.Rappaport, Traffic model and performance analysis for cellular mobile radio telephone systems with priority and non polarized handoff procedures, IEEE Trans. on Veh. Tech., 35(3):77-92, 1986

N.C.Phuong, S.H.Lee and J.M.Moon, Priority-based call admission control of multi classes in mobile networks, ICACT, pp.1471-1474, 2006.

K.W.Ross, Multiservice loss models for broadband telecommunication networks, Newyork: Springer-verlag, 1995.

P/Tran-Gia and F.Hubner, An analysis of trunk reservation and gradeoff service balancing mechanism in broadband networks, in Proc.TC6 Task group/WG6.4. Int'l. workshop, pp.83- 97, 1993

Koza.J.R, Genetic programming II automatic discovery of reusable programs, the MIT Press 1994.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.15837/ijccc.2012.2.1404

Copyright (c) 2017 Elias Aruna, R.S. Moni

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

IJCCC is an Open Access Journal : CC-BY-NC.

Articles published in IJCCC user license are protected by copyright.

Users can access, download, copy, translate the IJCCC articles for non-commercial purposes provided that users, but cannot redistribute, display or adapt:

  • Cite the article using an appropriate bibliographic citation: author(s), article title, journal, volume, issue, page numbers, year of publication, DOI, and the link to the definitive published version on IJCCC website;
  • Maintain the integrity of the IJCCC article;
  • Retain the copyright notices and links to these terms and conditions so it is clear to other users what can and what cannot be done with the  article;
  • Ensure that, for any content in the IJCCC article that is identified as belonging to a third party, any re-use complies with the copyright policies of that third party;
  • Any translations must prominently display the statement: "This is an unofficial translation of an article that appeared in IJCCC. Agora University  has not endorsed this translation."

This is a non commercial license where the use of published articles for commercial purposes is forbiden. 

Commercial purposes include: 

  • Copying or downloading IJCCC articles, or linking to such postings, for further redistribution, sale or licensing, for a fee;
  • Copying, downloading or posting by a site or service that incorporates advertising with such content;
  • The inclusion or incorporation of article content in other works or services (other than normal quotations with an appropriate citation) that is then available for sale or licensing, for a fee;
  • Use of IJCCC articles or article content (other than normal quotations with appropriate citation) by for-profit organizations for promotional purposes, whether for a fee or otherwise;
  • Use for the purposes of monetary reward by means of sale, resale, license, loan, transfer or other form of commercial exploitation;

    The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms.

[End of CC-BY-NC  License for Website User]

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMPUTERS COMMUNICATIONS & CONTROL (IJCCC), With Emphasis on the Integration of Three Technologies (C & C & C),  ISSN 1841-9836.

IJCCC was founded in 2006,  at Agora University, by  Ioan DZITAC (Editor-in-Chief),  Florin Gheorghe FILIP (Editor-in-Chief), and  Misu-Jan MANOLESCU (Managing Editor).

Ethics: This journal is a member of, and subscribes to the principles of, the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).

Ioan  DZITAC (Editor-in-Chief) at COPE European Seminar, Bruxelles, 2015:

IJCCC is covered/indexed/abstracted in Science Citation Index Expanded (since vol.1(S),  2006); JCR2018: IF=1.585..

IJCCC is indexed in Scopus from 2008 (CiteScore2018 = 1.56):

Nomination by Elsevier for Journal Excellence Award Romania 2015 (SNIP2014 = 1.029): Elsevier/ Scopus

IJCCC was nominated by Elsevier for Journal Excellence Award - "Scopus Awards Romania 2015" (SNIP2014 = 1.029).

IJCCC is in Top 3 of 157 Romanian journals indexed by Scopus (in all fields) and No.1 in Computer Science field by Elsevier/ Scopus.


 Impact Factor in JCR2018 (Clarivate Analytics/SCI Expanded/ISI Web of Science): IF=1.585 (Q3). Scopus: CiteScore2018=1.56 (Q2);

SCImago Journal & Country Rank

Editors-in-Chief: Ioan DZITAC & Florin Gheorghe FILIP.