GASANT: An ant-inspired least-cost QoS multicast routing approach based on genetic and simulated annealing algorithms

Morteza Damanafshan, Ehsan Khosrowshahi-Asl, Maghsoud Abbaspour


Computing least-cost multicast routing tree while satisfying QoS constraints has become a key issue especially by growing communication networks. To solve this problem, a triplex algorithm called GASANT which is based on Ant Colony Optimization (ACO), Genetic Algorithm (GA), and Simulated Annealing (SA) has been proposed in this paper. Through ACO, we have both provided improved initial population to feed GA and reduced search process. Besides, SA has been deployed to refrain GA from getting stuck into local optimum solutions. Simulation results assert that GASANT not only has high speed convergence time, but also generates least-cost multicast routing trees of high QoS.


Multicast Routing; Quality of Service (QoS); Ant Colony Optimization (ACO); Genetic Algorithm (GA); Simulated Annealing (SA)

Full Text:



W. Zhengying, S. Bingxin, Z. Erdun, Bandwidth-delay-constrained least-cost multicast routing based on heuristic genetic algorithm Computer Communications, Volume 24, Issues 7-8, April 2001.

F.K. Hwang, D.S. Richards, P. Winter, The Steiner Tree Problem, Annals of Discrete Mathematics, vol. 53, 1992.

R. M. Karp, Reducibility Among Combinatorial Problems, Complexity of Computer Computations, 1972.

V. P. Kompella, J. Pasquale, G. C. Polyzos, Multicast routing for multimedia communication IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking. 1(3) (1993) 286-292.

M. Parsa, Q. Zhu, J.J. Garcia-Luna-Aceves, An iterative algorithm for delay-constrained minimumcost multicasting, IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking 6 (4) 1998.

R. Widyono, The design and evaluation of routing algorithms for realtime channels, Technical Reports TR-94-024, Tenet Group, Department of EECS, University of California at Berkeley, 1994.

A.G. Waters, A new heuristic for ATM multicast routing, 2nd IFIP Workshop on Performance Modeling and Evaluation of ATM networks, 1994.

Q. Sun, H. Langendorfer, An efficient delay-constrained multicast routing algorithm, Journal of High-Speed Networks 7(1) 1998 43-55.

H.F. Salama, D.S. Reeves, Y. Viniotis, Evaluation of multicast routing algorithms for real-time communication on high-speed networks, IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications 15(3) (1997) 332-345.

F. Xiang, L. Junzhou, W. Jieyi, G. Guanqun, QoS routing based on genetic algorithm, Computer Communications 22(15-16) (1999) 1392-1399.

A.T. Haghighat, K. Faez, M. Dehghan, A. Mowlaei, Y. Ghahremani, GA-Based Heuristic Algorithms for QoS Based Multicast Routing, knowledge-based systems 16 (2003) 305-312.

C.P. Ravikumar, R. Bajpai, Source-based delay-bounded multicasting in multimedia networks, Computer Communications 21 (1998) 126-132.

Z. Wang, B. Shi, E. Zhao, Bandwidth-delay-constrainted least-cost multicast routing based on heuristic genetic algorithm, Computer Communications 24 (2001) 685-692.

S. Russell and P. Norvig, Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach, Prentice-Hall, 2003.

Q. Zhang, Y.W. Leung, An orthogonal genetic algorithm for multimedia multicast routing, IEEE Trans. Evol. Comput. 3 (1) (1999) 53-62.

K. Vijayalakshmi, and S. Radhakrishnan, Dynamic Routing to Multiple Destinations in IP Networks Using Hybrid Genetic Algorithm (DRHGA), International Journal of Information Technology. 4(1) 2008.

Vijayalakshmi, S. Radhakrishnan, Artificial immune based hybrid GA for QoS based multicast routing in large scale networks (AISMR), Computer communications, 2008.

N. Shimamoto, A. Hiramatsu, K. Yamasaki, A dynamic routing control based on a GA, In proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Neural Network (1993) pp. 1123-1128.

J.J. Wu, R.H. Hwang, H.I. Lu, Multicast routing with multiple QoS constraints in ATM networks, Information Sciences 124 (2000) 29-57.

Li Zhang, Lian-bo Cai, Meng Li, Fa-hui Wang, A method for least-cost QoS least-Cost multicast routing based on genetic simulated annealing algorithm, Computer Communications, 31 (2008) 3984-3994.

Sushil J. Louis Gregory J. E. Rawlins, Predicting Convergence Time for Genetic Algorithms, Technical Report, Indiana University, 1992.

R. R. Hill, Ch. Hiremath, Improving genetic algorithm convergence using problem structure and domain knowledge in multidimensional knapsack problems, International Journal of Operational Research 2005 - Vol. 1, No.1/2 pp. 145 - 159.

G. Di Caro, M. Dorigo, AntNet: Distributed Stigmergetic Control for Communications Networks, Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research 9 (1998) 317-365.

Özgür Yeniay, Penalty Function Methods for Constrained Optimization with Genetic Algorithms, Journal of Mathematical and Computation Applications, 10(1) (2005) pp. 45-56.

J. D. Schaffer, A. Morishima, An Adaptive Crossover Distribution Mechanism for Genetic Algorithms, ICGA 1987.

C. Guoliang, W. Xufa, Z. Zhenquan, Genetic Algorithm and its Application, People's Posts and Telecommunications Press, 1996.

M. Farooq, Implementation of AntNet in OMNeT++,, November 2009.

B.M.Waxman, Routing of multipoint connections. IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun. 6(9) (1998) 1617-1622.

S. Kirkpatrick, C. D. Gelatt and M. P. Vecchi, Optimization by Simulated Annealing, Science, New Series, Vol. 220, No. 4598 (1983) pp. 671-680.


Copyright (c) 2017 Morteza Damanafshan, Ehsan Khosrowshahi-Asl, Maghsoud Abbaspour

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

CC-BY-NC  License for Website User

Articles published in IJCCC user license are protected by copyright.

Users can access, download, copy, translate the IJCCC articles for non-commercial purposes provided that users, but cannot redistribute, display or adapt:

  • Cite the article using an appropriate bibliographic citation: author(s), article title, journal, volume, issue, page numbers, year of publication, DOI, and the link to the definitive published version on IJCCC website;
  • Maintain the integrity of the IJCCC article;
  • Retain the copyright notices and links to these terms and conditions so it is clear to other users what can and what cannot be done with the  article;
  • Ensure that, for any content in the IJCCC article that is identified as belonging to a third party, any re-use complies with the copyright policies of that third party;
  • Any translations must prominently display the statement: "This is an unofficial translation of an article that appeared in IJCCC. Agora University  has not endorsed this translation."

This is a non commercial license where the use of published articles for commercial purposes is forbiden. 

Commercial purposes include: 

  • Copying or downloading IJCCC articles, or linking to such postings, for further redistribution, sale or licensing, for a fee;
  • Copying, downloading or posting by a site or service that incorporates advertising with such content;
  • The inclusion or incorporation of article content in other works or services (other than normal quotations with an appropriate citation) that is then available for sale or licensing, for a fee;
  • Use of IJCCC articles or article content (other than normal quotations with appropriate citation) by for-profit organizations for promotional purposes, whether for a fee or otherwise;
  • Use for the purposes of monetary reward by means of sale, resale, license, loan, transfer or other form of commercial exploitation;

    The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms.

[End of CC-BY-NC  License for Website User]

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMPUTERS COMMUNICATIONS & CONTROL (IJCCC), With Emphasis on the Integration of Three Technologies (C & C & C),  ISSN 1841-9836.

IJCCC was founded in 2006,  at Agora University, by  Ioan DZITAC (Editor-in-Chief),  Florin Gheorghe FILIP (Editor-in-Chief), and  Misu-Jan MANOLESCU (Managing Editor).

Ethics: This journal is a member of, and subscribes to the principles of, the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).

Ioan  DZITAC (Editor-in-Chief) at COPE European Seminar, Bruxelles, 2015:

IJCCC is covered/indexed/abstracted in Science Citation Index Expanded (since vol.1(S),  2006); JCR2016: IF=1.374. .

IJCCC is indexed in Scopus from 2008 (CiteScore 2017 = 1.04; SNIP2017 = 0.616, SJR2017 =0.326):

Nomination by Elsevier for Journal Excellence Award Romania 2015 (SNIP2014 = 1.029): Elsevier/ Scopus

IJCCC was nominated by Elsevier for Journal Excellence Award - "Scopus Awards Romania 2015" (SNIP2014 = 1.029).

IJCCC is in Top 3 of 157 Romanian journals indexed by Scopus (in all fields) and No.1 in Computer Science field by Elsevier/ Scopus.


 Impact Factor in JCR2017 (Clarivate Analytics/SCI Expanded/ISI Web of Science): IF=1.29 (Q3). Scopus: CiteScore2017=1.04 (Q2); Editors-in-Chief: Ioan DZITAC & Florin Gheorghe FILIP.