Performance Analysis of Epidemic Routing in Delay Tolerant Networks with Overlapping Communities and Selfish Nodes

Yahui Wu, Su Deng, Hongbin Huang, Yiqi Deng

Abstract


Routing in delay tolerant networks (DTN) adopts the store-carry-forward mode, and it requires nodes to forward data in a cooperative way. However, nodes may be not willing to help others in many applications and this behavior can be called as individual selfish. On the other hand, nodes often can be divided into different communities, and nodes in the same community often have some social ties. Due to these social ties, nodes are more willing to help the one in the same community, but not others. This behavior can be called as social selfish. Note that some nodes may belong to more than one community in the real world, and this phenomenon makes the network have overlapping communities. This paper proposed a theoretical model by the continuous time Markov process to describe the performance of epidemic routing (ER) in such network. Simulation results show the accuracy of our model. Numerical results show that the selfish nature can make the performance of the routing policy be worse, but those nodes belonging to multi-communities can decrease the impact of the selfish nature in some degree.


Keywords


delay tolerant networks, selfish nodes, overlapping communities, epidemic routing, performance analysis

Full Text:

PDF

References


S. Haoliang, L. Lixiang and H. Xiaohui, A network coding based DTN convergence layer reliable transport mechanism over interplanetary networks, International Journal of Computers Communications & Control, vol.6, no. 2, pp.236-245, 2011.

A. Rahim, Z. S. Khan, F. B. Muhaya, M. Sher and M. K. Khan, Information sharing in vehicular adhoc network, International Journal of Computers Communications & Control, vol.5, no. 5, pp.892-899, 2010.

W. Gao, Q. Li, B. Zhao and G. Cao, Multicasting in delay tolerant networks: a social network perspective, in Proceedings of the ACM MobiHoc, 2009.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1530748.1530790

K. Fall, A delay-tolerant network architecture for challenged internets, in Proceedings of ACM SIGCOMM, 2003.

T. Spyropoulos, T. Turletti and K. Obrazcka, Routing in delay tolerant networks comprising heterogeneous populations of nodes, IEEE Transaction on Mobile Computing, vol. 6, no. 8, 2009.

T. Spyropoulos, K. Psounis and C. Raghavendra, Efficient routing in intermittently connected mobile networks: the single-copy case, ACM/IEEE Transaction on Networking, 2008.

Z. Guo, B. Wang and J. –H. Cui, Prediction assisted single-copy routing in underwater delay tolerant networks, in Proceedings of IEEE Globecomm, 2010.

E. Bulut, Z. Wang and B. Szymanski, Cost effective multi-period spraying for routing in delay tolerant networks, ACM/IEEE Transaction on Networking, vol. 18, no. 5, 2010.

W. Gao and G. Cao, On exploiting transient contact patterns for data forwarding in delay tolerant networks, in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Network Protocols (ICNP), 2010.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ICNP.2010.5762768

G. Resta and P. Santi, The effects of node cooperation level on routing performance in delay tolerant networks, in Proceedings of IEEE SECON, 2009.

P. Hui, K. Xu, V. O. K. Li, J. Crowcort, V. Latora and P. Lio, Selfishness, altruism and message spreading in mobile social networks, in Proceedings of IEEE International Workshop on Network Science for Communication Networks (NetSciCom09), 2009.

K. Xu, P. Hui, V. O. K. Li, J. Crowcort, V. Latora and P. Lio, Impact of altruism on opportunistic communications, in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Ubiquitous and Future Networks (ICUFN09), 2009.

R. Lu, X. Lin, H. Zhu, X. Shen and B. Preiss, Pi: a practical incentive protocol for delay tolerant networks, IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, vol.9, no.4, 2010.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TWC.2010.04.090557

T. Ning, Z. Yang, X. Xie and H. Wu, Incentive-aware data dissemination in delay-tolerant mobile networks, in Proceedings of IEEE SECON, 2011.

Q. Li, S. Zhu and G. Cao, Routing in socially selfish delay tolerant network, in Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM, 2010.

Y. Li, P. Hui, D. Jin, L. Su and L. Zeng, Evaluating the impact of social selfishness on the epidemic routing in delay tolerant networks, IEEE Communication Letters, vol.14, no.11, pp.1026-1028, 2010.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/LCOMM.2010.093010.100492

Y. Li, G. Su, D. O. Wu, D. Jin, L. Su and L. Zeng, The impact of node selfishness on multicasting in delay tolerant networks, IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol.60, no.5, 2011.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TVT.2011.2149552

N. P. Nguyen, T. N. Dinh, S. Tokala, M. T. Thai, Overlapping communities in dynamic networks: their detection and mobile applications, in Proceedings of ACM MobiCom, 2011.

A. Vahdat and D. Becker, Epidemic routing for partially-connected ad hoc networks, Technical Report, Duke University, 2000.

X. Zhang, G. Neglia, J. Kurose and D. Towsley, Performance modeling of epidemic routing, Computer Networks, vol. 51, no. 10, pp. 2867-2891, 2007.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.comnet.2006.11.028

Y. K. Ip, W. –C. Lau and O. –C Yue, Performance modeling of epidemic routing with heterogeneous node types, in Proceedings of IEEE int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), pp. 219-224, 2008.

A. AI-Hanbali, P. Nain and E. Altman, Performance of ad hoc networks with two-hop relay routing and limited packet lifetime, in Proceedings of Valuetools, 2006.

A. Jindal and K. Psounis, Contention-aware performance analysis of mobility-assisted routing, IEEE Transaction on Mobile Computing, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 145-161, 2009.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TMC.2008.98

E. Altman, T. Basar and F. D. Pellegrini, Optimal monotone forwarding policies in delay tolerant mobile ad-hoc networks, in Proceedings of ACM Inter-Perf, 2008.

E. Altman, G. Neglia, F. D. Pellegrini and D. Miorandi, Decentralized stochastic control of delay tolerant networks, in Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM, 2009.

F. D. Pellegrini, E. Altman and T. Basar, Optimal monotone forwarding policies in delay tolerant mobile ad hoc networks with multiple classes of nodes, in Proceedings of WiOpt, 2010.

C. Singh, A. Kumar, R. Sundaresan and E. Altman, Optimal forwarding in delay tolerant networks with multiple destinations, in Proceedings of WiOpt, 2011.

Y. Li, Z. Wang, D. Jin, L. Su, L. Zeng and S. Chen, Optimal relaying in heterogeneous delay tolerant networks, in Proceedings of IEEE int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), 2011.

M. Khouzani, S. Sarkar and E. Altman, Optimal control of epidemic evolution, in Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM, 2011.

R. Groenevelt, P. Nain and G. Koole, The message delay in mobile ad hoc networks, Performance Evaluation, 2005.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.peva.2005.07.018

T. Karagiannis, J. –Y. L. Boudec and M. Zojnovic, Power law and exponential decay of inter contact times between mobile devices, in Proceedings of ACM MOBICOM, 2007.

A. Keranen, J. Ott, and T. Karkkainen, The ONE simulator for DTN protocol evaluation, in Proceedings of SIMUTOOLS, 2009
http://dx.doi.org/10.4108/ICST.SIMUTOOLS2009.5674

S. J. U. Traffic information grid team, Grid Computing Center, Shanghai Taxi Trace Data [Online], Available: http://wirelesslab.sjtu.edu.cn/.

H. Zhu, L. Fu, G. Xue, Y. Zhu, M. Li and L. Ni, Recognizing exponential inter-contact time in VANETs, in Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM, 2010.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.15837/ijccc.2013.5.12



Copyright (c) 2017 Yahui Wu, Su Deng, Hongbin Huang, Yiqi Deng

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

CC-BY-NC  License for Website User

Articles published in IJCCC user license are protected by copyright.

Users can access, download, copy, translate the IJCCC articles for non-commercial purposes provided that users, but cannot redistribute, display or adapt:

  • Cite the article using an appropriate bibliographic citation: author(s), article title, journal, volume, issue, page numbers, year of publication, DOI, and the link to the definitive published version on IJCCC website;
  • Maintain the integrity of the IJCCC article;
  • Retain the copyright notices and links to these terms and conditions so it is clear to other users what can and what cannot be done with the  article;
  • Ensure that, for any content in the IJCCC article that is identified as belonging to a third party, any re-use complies with the copyright policies of that third party;
  • Any translations must prominently display the statement: "This is an unofficial translation of an article that appeared in IJCCC. Agora University  has not endorsed this translation."

This is a non commercial license where the use of published articles for commercial purposes is forbiden. 

Commercial purposes include: 

  • Copying or downloading IJCCC articles, or linking to such postings, for further redistribution, sale or licensing, for a fee;
  • Copying, downloading or posting by a site or service that incorporates advertising with such content;
  • The inclusion or incorporation of article content in other works or services (other than normal quotations with an appropriate citation) that is then available for sale or licensing, for a fee;
  • Use of IJCCC articles or article content (other than normal quotations with appropriate citation) by for-profit organizations for promotional purposes, whether for a fee or otherwise;
  • Use for the purposes of monetary reward by means of sale, resale, license, loan, transfer or other form of commercial exploitation;

    The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms.

[End of CC-BY-NC  License for Website User]


INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMPUTERS COMMUNICATIONS & CONTROL (IJCCC), With Emphasis on the Integration of Three Technologies (C & C & C),  ISSN 1841-9836.

IJCCC was founded in 2006,  at Agora University, by  Ioan DZITAC (Editor-in-Chief),  Florin Gheorghe FILIP (Editor-in-Chief), and  Misu-Jan MANOLESCU (Managing Editor).

Ethics: This journal is a member of, and subscribes to the principles of, the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).

Ioan  DZITAC (Editor-in-Chief) at COPE European Seminar, Bruxelles, 2015:

IJCCC is covered/indexed/abstracted in Science Citation Index Expanded (since vol.1(S),  2006); JCR2018: IF=1.585..

IJCCC is indexed in Scopus from 2008 (CiteScore2018 = 1.56):

Nomination by Elsevier for Journal Excellence Award Romania 2015 (SNIP2014 = 1.029): Elsevier/ Scopus

IJCCC was nominated by Elsevier for Journal Excellence Award - "Scopus Awards Romania 2015" (SNIP2014 = 1.029).

IJCCC is in Top 3 of 157 Romanian journals indexed by Scopus (in all fields) and No.1 in Computer Science field by Elsevier/ Scopus.

 

 Impact Factor in JCR2018 (Clarivate Analytics/SCI Expanded/ISI Web of Science): IF=1.585 (Q3). Scopus: CiteScore2018=1.56 (Q2); Editors-in-Chief: Ioan DZITAC & Florin Gheorghe FILIP.